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  • Author or Editor: H. C. Bittenbender x
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Abstract

In the feature article “International Alumni Evaluate a Horticulture Departments Graduate Program” [HortScience 19(6):792–795, 1984] by H.C. Bittenbender, the first sentence in paragraph 2 on page 792 should read, “Administrators of 43 horticultural departments enrolling a total of 1500 graduate students, of which 290 where LDC students, indicated...”

Open Access

Abstract

Home gardens are an ancient and widespread agricultural system. Today in the United States and other developed countries (DCs), the home garden remains as a popular hobby. Horticulture departments in the United States work with home gardeners as one of their land grant university responsibilities. What is the status of home gardens in the less developed countries (LDCs) of Africa, Asia, and Latin America? Are home gardens simply hobbies there as well? Can home gardens contribute to the nutritional and household needs of poor families in LDCs? What is the record of past home garden projects in these countries? Is there a state-of-the-art strategy to improve home gardens? Is there a role for the horticultural scientist? These questions are addressed in this review of home gardens in LDCs, their crops and role in meeting nutritional and other needs of poor families. The design and results of past home garden projects and 2 strategies for improving home gardens are evaluated. Recent initiatives by international agencies, e.g., UNICEF and USAID, and the challenge these present to horticultural scientists also are discussed.

Open Access

Abstract

International graduate alumni of the Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State Univ., were surveyed. Recommendations for future graduate programs were developed with emphasis on students from less developed countries (LDC). Ninety-two percent of the LDC alumni were professionally employed in agricultural colleges, ministries of agriculture or agribusiness prior to graduate work, and over 45% were sponsored by a government or international agency. Fifty-seven percent of all international students were obligated to their governments to return after graduation. It is recommended, based on LDC comments on courses and program orientation, that LDC students take problem-solving courses such as in postharvest physiology, plant pathology, weed control, and plant propagation. Furthermore, the United States is favored for course work for both the MS and PhD degree, but home-based research is highly favored for MS and equally preferred to the United States for PhD research. Postharvest physiology, research program and industry evaluation, and plant breeding were identified by the alumni as important areas for collaboration with the department. A nationwide study of international horticulture alumni is necessary to understand more completely their training needs.

Open Access

In 1988, the Farmer's Bookshelf started out as a computerized information system of crops grown in Hawaii. The first version was created on an Apple Macintosh computer using a hypermedia program called HyperCard. Because HyperCard came with each Macintosh computer, only the crop files needed to be sent to clientele. As the demand for an IBM-compatible version of the Farmer's Bookshelf increased, the Windows version was created using a hypermedia program called Plus. In addition to the crop files, the runtime version of Plus was also distributed to clientele. Later, other files were added to the Farmer's Bookshelf, including files to diagnose problems of macadamia in the field, select ground covers, select landscape trees, recommend fertilization, calculate nut loss for macadamia growers, and calculate turfgrass irrigation. Cost of analysis spread-sheets for several crops were also added. Recently, the Farmer's Bookshelf was moved to the World Wide Web, which has the advantages of reaching a world-wide clientele, easier updating and modifications, and linking to sites of related information. We have added links to newspaper articles on agriculture in Hawaii, to related sites on a particular crop, to on-line agricultural magazines and newsletters, to agricultural software, to upcoming agricultural events, and to Y2K sites. Because of the benefits of the Web version, the diskette versions (Macintosh and Windows) are no longer supported. Putting the Farmer's Bookshelf on the Web has allowed us to better meet the needs of our clientele for up-to-date information.

Free access

Abstract

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), and juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) growers in selected Michigan counties were surveyed to determine the major sources of technical information used in their decisionmaking for seven production practices; whether a common pattern of information sources exist among the seven technologies within each grower group; and whether patterns of information sources among different grower groups are similar within each technology. Major information sources averaged across the seven production practices in order of importance to each grower group were: apple growers—Michigan State Horticultural Society (MSHS) annual meetings, local growers, Cooperative Extension Services (CES) agents, CES bulletins, and agribusiness representatives; blueberry growers—Michigan Blueberry Growers Association (MBGA) members-MBGA representatives, MBGA handbooks and local growers, and independent blueberry growers-CES agents, local growers, and CES bulletins; grape growers—National Grape Cooperative (NGC) members-local growers, CES agents, NGC newsletters and NGC representatives, and, independent juice grape growers—local growers and CES agents. Information sources used by growers for each practice were discussed. Chemical-requiring technologies, such as fertilizer use, weed control, pest control, growth regulator use, and disease control had similar ranking patterns for information sources within each industry.

Open Access

The objective of this study was to develop a computerized personal information management system for use by extension agents and growers. Agents and growers need an easy-to-use computer information system to access quickly information about specific topics for different crops. An information system helps agents provide faster, better service and up-to-date information to their clients. Using the software LinkWay (IBM Corp.) on an IBM personal computer, we developed such a system called the “Farmer's Bookshelf for the IBM.” This information system uses “index cards” with information stored on separate screens called “pages.” Both textual and graphical information may appear on a page. Using a mouse, the user navigates from one page to another by clicking on a “button” on the page. This easy-to-use system requires no typing except to enter a word for the computer to search. The user can easily browse for the desired information and then print it. The “Farmer's Bookshelf for the IBM” provides an easy, fast tool for agents and growers to obtain vitally needed information.

Free access

Many areas in Hawaii with potential for growing macadamia lack sufficient rainfall. Ground water in these areas is generally brackish due to sea water intrusion. An experiment was started in 1984 to determine the response of young macadamia trees cv. `Kau' (HAES 344) Macadamia integrifolia to salinity under field irrigated conditions. Treatments were rain only, freshwater, 500 and 1200 ppm salt as diluted sea water to simulate the ground water conditions.

Until mid 1989 trees were irrigated twice weekly to supply 100% ET (evapotranspiration) of the previous week based on a class A pan. No differences were detected among treatments on yield, trunk diameter, soil and tissue nutrient composition except trees in the rain only treatment less yield and trunk growth. Irrigation treatments were modified in mid 1989 to rain only, and twice weekly fresh water, 1200 and 2400 ppm salt at 50 and 75%. ET. Effect on yield, trunk diameter, soil and tissue nutrient composition in the 1989-90 season will be reported.

Free access

Extension personnel and growers need up-to-date information on crops to make sound management decisions. The Farmer's Bookshelf™, a hypermedia information system based on the software HyperCard®, was developed for Macintosh® computers. Since clientele who use IBM-compatible computers could not use the Macintosh version of the Farmer's Bookshelf, we looked into several DOS/Windows™ hypermedia software. Spinnaker PLUS™ (Spinnaker Software Corp.) suited our needs, primarily because it required a minimum of reprogramming. PLUS (Macintosh) converted HyperCard files into PLUS (Macintosh) files. Some programming, fonts, and icons required modifications. PLUS (Macintosh) files were then edited using PLUS (widows). Again, minor editing was necessary. Currently, the PLUS (Windows) files and a runtime version of PLUS (Windows) are distributed to clientele who use IBM-compatible computers. PLUS enables our supporting the Fanner's Bookshelf without having to develop a DOS or Windows version that requires completely new programming and extensive modifications. HyperCard files are readily converted to run under Windows, thus helping us to serve clientele who use either platform.

Free access

Hawaii has had a large growth in housing, and with the reduced lot sizes of single family dwellings has come interest in using ground covers to landscape limited areas. As residential areas are being located on less desirable lands, there is a need to select ground covers that do well in these areas. The objective of this study was to develop a hypermedia information system to recommend ground covers and to obtain information on individual ground covers. Using the software HyperCard® on the Macintosh® computer, we developed a system that uses the idea of index cards with information being stored on separate screens called “cards.” Using a mouse, the user navigates from one card to another by clicking on a “button” on the card. The user may select up to four criteria from 33 criteria including plant height, elevation, soil moisture, flower color, erosion control, and shade. The program then finds which of 48 ground covers meet the desired criteria and provides information on these ground covers. This easy-to-use system requires no typing except to enter a word to search for. The user can quickly browse for the desired information and save it as a text file or print it. The Farmer's Bookshelf™ provides a tool for extension agents and growers to obtain easily vitally needed information. The program has further application for landscape companies, Master Gardener programs, and in horticultural courses.

Free access