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  • Author or Editor: H. Budak x
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A simple marker technique called sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) provides a useful tool for estimation of genetic diversity and phenetic relationships in natural and domesticated populations. Previous studies and our initial screen showed SRAP is highly polymorphic and more informative when compared to AFLP, RAPD and SSR markers. In this study, applicability of the SRAP markers to obtain an overview of genetic diversity and phenetic relationships present among cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) turfgrass species and their relationship with other Gramineae species were tested. Phenetic trees based on genetic similarities (UPGMA, N-J) were consistent with known taxonomic relationships. In some cases, well-supported relationships as well as evidence by genetic reticulation could be inferred. There was widespread genetic variation among C3 and C4 turfgrass species. In Dice based cophenetic matrix, genetic similarities among all species studied ranged from 0.08 to 0.94, whereas in Jaccard based cophenetic matrix, genetic similarities ranged from 0.05 to 0.85. C3 and C4 species were clearly distinguishable and a close relationship between italian ryegrass and tall fescue were obtained based on SRAP. Genome structures of turfgrasses are comparable to other Gramineae species. This research indicates that the SRAP markers are useful for estimating genetic relationships in a wide range of turfgrass species. The SRAP markers identified in this study can provide a useful reference for future turfgrass breeding efforts.

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Little or no research information exists in the literature regarding recommended seeding rates of improved turf-type buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) cultivars, like `Bowie'. This research was conducted to determine the effect of bur seeding rate on turfgrass establishment of `Bowie' buffalograss. Two experiments were initiated on 21 July 2002 on diverse sites at the John Seaton Anderson Turfgrass Research Facility located near Mead, Nebr. Bur seeding rate effects on turfgrass quality, shoot density and cover, and seedling density were evaluated during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Burs were seeded at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 g·m–2 (0.51, 1.0, 2.0, 4.1, and 8.2 lb/1000 ft2) of pure live seed (PLS). Turfgrass quality ratings increased linearly with bur seeding rate during the first growing season. However, by early in the second growing season, the response was quadratic with little or no difference in quality between 10 and 40 g·m–2. Turfgrass cover ratings responded in a similar manner to the quality ratings. Buffalograss is reported to establish slowly, taking more than one growing season to establish an acceptable level. In this study, `Bowie', a turf-type cultivar, had acceptable turfgrass quality (≥5.0) and cover (≥75%) ratings by 3 months at bur seeding rates of 5 to 40 g·m–2 of PLS, and acceptable quality and cover ratings were obtained at slightly over 1 month at rates of 20 to 40 g·m–2. These results indicate that bur seeding rates of 20 to 40 g·m–2 are advisable where rapid establishment of turf-type buffalograss is desired, and rates as low as 5 g·m–2 can be used when establishment within two growing seasons is deemed reasonable.

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Dormant buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) turfs, grown under field conditions, were treated with a colorant and evaluated for turfgrass color, quality, and cover. In addition, turfgrass canopy and soil temperatures were measured. Colorant treatments improved turfgrass color and quality when compared to the untreated control, and resulted in a color response that appeared similar to cool season turfgrasses growing in areas adjacent to the studies. Colorant treatments increased canopy and soil temperatures, and enhanced spring green-up. These results support the use of colorants as a means of extending the green appearance, and enhancing dormant buffalograss turf performance.

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Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] has the potential for increased use as a turfgrass species due to its low maintenance and water conservation characteristics. This study was conducted to estimate diversity and relationships among naturally occurring buffalograss genotypes based on the nuclear genome, using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The 56 genotypes studied represented five ploidy levels collected from diverse geographic locations in the North American Great Plains. In addition, blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. Ex Steud.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were included as outgroups. Twenty-five combinations of forward and reverse primers were used. Ninety-five intensively amplified markers were scored and used to infer diversity and relationships among the genotypes. All buffalograss genotypes were discriminated from each other with similarity values ranging from 0.70 to 0.95. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the 56 genotypes could be reduced to 50 due to high similarity levels among some of the genotypes. The distance between buffalograsses, blue grama, and perennial ryegrass were consistent with current taxonomical distances. This research indicates that SRAP markers can be used to estimate genetic diversity and relationships among naturally occurring buffalograss genotypes.

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