Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Guofan Liu x
Clear All Modify Search
Authors: and

One hundred mature leaves of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) were selected from 10 trees in a commercial orchard in Papaikou on the island of Hawaii. Length (L), width (W), and area (A) of each leaf were taken. L and W were significantly correlated (r = 0.93), L and A (r = 0.98), W and A (r = 0.94), and (L × W) and A (r = 0.99). L and W showed curvilinear relationships with A. Seventy-five mature leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica `Guatemalan') were selected from five trees at the Waimanalo Expt. Station on the island of Oahu. Leaf L, W, and A were measured. L and W were significantly correlated (r = 0.72), L and A (r = 0.89), W and A (r = 0.93), and (L × W) and A (r = 0.98). L and W showed curvilinear relationships with A. For both macadamia and coffee, although using L × W as a term in linear equations resulted in higher adjusted R 2s, the use of these equations would involve taking an additional measurement in the field. A quadratic equation using width (for coffee) or length (for macadamia) best described the relationship between these measurements and area and provide a quick method for estimating leaf area in the field.

Free access

A shade experiment for pruned coffee trees was conducted on Maui, Hawaii, in 1996. Nine-year-old `Guadalupe' trees were stumped at 70 cm above the ground, and three main verticals were allowed to remain on the main trunk. Each stumped tree was randomly selected and covered with shade cloth. The shade cloths were 30%, 50%, and 70% shade, and each shade structure had a length × width × height of 1.5 × 1.5 × 2.5 m. Data were collected in 1997. In general, the basal diameters of the verticals were similar in all treatments, as were the lengths of the verticals. The total number of laterals in the full-light treatment was slightly more than that of the other treatments. The numbers of flowering laterals were similar in all treatments. The numbers of fruit per tree in the full light, 30%, 50%, and 70% shade treatments were 1876, 3434, 2399, and 403, respectively. Fruit per flowering node was the best index relating to yield. Fruit per node was highest under 30% shade, followed by full light and 70% shade. At the beginning, fruit ripened faster in the full light treatment than in the other treatments, but at the end of September, fruit in 70% shade ripened slower than the other treatments. Therefore, after stumping, coffee trees grew best under 30% shade. For coffee, pruning under the field condition, stumping every other row of trees may be a satisfactory way to obtain the best yield in the future.

Free access

It is difficult to estimate the total leaf area of coffee plants with accuracy due to the large number of leaves and the high leaf density of the plant canopy. In 1996, on Maui, Hawaii, 98 leaves of various sizes were randomly collected for each of five cultivars of Coffea arabica L. The cultivars used were `Guadalupe', `Guatemalan', `Mokka', `Red Catuai', and `Yellow Caturra'. Leaf length, width, and area were measured. Seventy-five leaves were used to develop leaf area models, and the remaining leaves were used to test the accuracy of the models using a 1:1 line. We then developed leaf area devices (LADs), which were made of sheet plastic and shaped to resemble coffee leaves. There were three groups of areas in the leaf area devices, based on leaf sizes. Total leaf area (TLA) contained three components. Each component related to the mean leaf area (k) and the number of leaves (n) in that group. The model for the total leaf area was: TLA = k1n1 + k2n2 + k3n3, where k is a constant in each group. The estimation errors for the different cultivars ranged from 5.6% to 12.3% for 1-year-old plants (four cultivars) and from 1.9% to 7.8% for mature plants (five cultivars). By using the LADs and counting the number of leaves, we can obtain the total leaf area for coffee plants in the field.

Free access

Turfgrass is grown under a wide range of environmental conditions, especially light conditions. In residential and commercial applications, selecting the appropriate turfgrass depends, in part, upon its performance under differing light conditions. This study was conducted to determine the growth habits of four turfgrasses under different shade treatments. `Common Bermuda', `Tif dwarf Bermuda', `Seashore Paspalum', and `Z-3' were grown outdoors in pots. `Z-3' is an attractive new variety of turfgrass for residential lawns. Benches were covered with shade cloth to provide different shade conditions (0%, 30%, and 50% shading). Clippings were taken every 2 weeks and dried to determine growth. Turfgrass growth under the three shade treatments were significantly different. In the 0% and 30% shade treatments, `Common Bermuda' and `Seashore Paspalum' had similar growth with their dry weights being greater than that of `Tif dwarf Bermuda' and `Z-3'. Under 50% shade, `Seashore Paspalum' grew significantly greater than the other turfgrasses. `Common Bermuda' grew significantly less under 50% shade than under 0% and 30% shade. `Common Bermuda' does well on golf courses because of its fast growth and attractiveness. With its vigorous growth and shade tolerance, `Seashore Paspalum' can be used for residential lawns. `Z-3' turfgrass, a relatively new variety for residential lawns, shows slow growth but is desirable because of its tolerance to different shade conditions.

Free access

Four turfgrasses (Z-3, Seashore Paspalum, Common Bermuda, and Tif dwarf Bermuda) were grown outdoors in pots under different shade conditions (0%, 30%, and 50% shade) from August to December 1995. Dry weight of clippings taken every two weeks was determined. Turfgrass growth in the three shade treatments were significantly different, and the growth of the turfgrasses were highly significantly different. In the 0% and 30% shade treatments, Common Bermuda and Seashore Paspalum grew similarly, and their dry weights were significantly greater than those of Z-3 and Tif dwarf Bermuda. However, under 50% shade, only Seashore Paspalum grew significantly greater than the others. Comparing growth among the shade treatments for each turfgrass, we found no significantly differences. Only Common Bermuda grew significantly less under 50% shade than under 0% and 30% shade. Common Bermuda is good for golf courses because of its fast growth and attractiveness. Seashore Paspalum can be used for home lawns because of its vigorous growth and shade tolerance. Z-3 turfgrass, an attractive new variety for home lawns, despite its slow growth, is tolerant of different shade conditions.

Free access

Pruning methods 1.5 × 1.5 m (topping and hedging) and stumping to 0.70 m were used on coffee cultivars Guatemalan, Red Catuai, Yellow Caturra, and Mokka. In the hedged treatment, `Mokka' had the longest laterals, followed by `Guatemalan', with `Red Catuai', and `Yellow Caturra' having similar lengths. `Mokka' had the most nodes/lateral. `Guatemalan' showed the fastest growth (height), followed by `Mokka', with `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra' having similar growth. For 0.70-m pruning, vertical lengths of `Guatemalan' were the longest. `Mokka' had the most vertical nodes. `Guatemalan' had the longest vertical internodes, followed by `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra', with `Mokka' having the shortest. `Yellow Caturra' had the most laterals/vertical, followed by `Red Catuai' and `Guatemalan'. `Mokka' had the fewest. Lateral lengths, nodes/lateral, and internode length were similar for all cultivars. Two-meter pruning height may be best for `Red Catuai' and `Yellow Caturra' because of slow growth, shorter laterals, and fewer nodes/lateral. These two cultivars grew well after being stumped due to faster regrowth and more laterals remaining on new verticals. 1.5-m pruning appears optimum for `Guatemalan', but it grew very well after stumping. It may be better to prune `Mokka' to a 2-m height with a narrow canopy remaining because of its good multiple verticals, fast lateral growth from new verticals in canopy but not in full sun, and more vertical nodes but less laterals regrowing from new verticals on main trunks exposed to full sunlight.

Free access