‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana) is a fruit in high demand in international markets, and Colombia is expanding its export to the United States. Avocado quality and shelf life are related to its harvest time. However, there is not enough information on harvest indicators in Colombia that allow producers to adequately harvest fruit to comply with market requirements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate maturity indicators during two harvest periods. We harvested fruit between the years 2016 and 2017 in eight farms distributed in three regions of the Department of Antioquia, Colombia, and selected those in the postanthesis stages. We assessed variables such as fruit color, weight, dimensions, oil content (OC), and dry matter (DM). The results were analyzed using simple and multiple regressions as well as by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed a high linear relation between DM and OC (R2 ≥ 78.88) and a significant relation between OC, rainfall, fruit development time, and environmental temperature. Nondestructive indicators that allow the establishment of DM in the field (R2 ≥ 73.57) varied according to the region and included fruit color (L*, b*), volume (P ≤ 0.05), and fruit development time. These indicators could reduce maturity heterogeneity during the harvest period.
A cross was performed between Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Caimanta' and L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accession LA722. Divergent-antagonistic selection for fruit weight and shelf life started in the F2 generation. Fruit shelf life showed transgressive segregation in this F2 generation. The selection process continued until the F6 generation, but we found that only fruit weight was responsive to selection. Seventeen recombinant lines (RILs) were analyzed for both traits. Nine of these RILs were obtained by the selection process. The other eight RILs were obtained by selfing without selection from the same F2 generation to assess random drift. Highly significant differences were found among these RILs for both fruit weight and shelf life. Random drift was as important as selection in producing different genotypes. Although fruit shelf life showed null response to selection in this interspecific cross, selfing and selecting has generated a new population of 17 recombinant genotypes for both fruit weight and shelf life. This experiment has demonstrated that wild tomato species offer breeders another possibility to enhance the genetic variability for fruit shelf life and fruit weight in tomato germplasm.
The present work is the first report in vitro on root induction of Agave salmiana Otto, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Several concentrations of bacteria and acetosyringone were used, and different inoculation sites were tested, such as leaves, shaft, and root. Incubation time in darkness was 6 days. The transformed adventitious roots appeared 25 days after inoculation. The best treatment was when the shaft was inoculated with: 1 × 108 bacteria/mL and 100 μm acetosyringone; in this treatment, induction of transformed roots was 57.5% in the inoculated sites. The activity and presence of the foreign genes in the transformed roots of A. salmianawere verified as follows: 1) histochemical staining for GUS activity was determined in 80% of the tested root; and 2) molecular analysis via PCR was made to verify the presence of nptII gene and rol B gene (both were present in 60% of the tested root). This is the first report of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on wild roots and transformed roots of Agavewith Glomus intraradicesSchenck and Smith. The result of the monoxenic culture was as follows: mother spore germinated 5 days; the colonization of the transformed roots was 70%. Then we proceeded to the recovery of daughter spores, in which we obtained an average 300 daughter spores per petri dish, 6 months after inoculation.