Many species of Phytophthora de Bary are important pathogens of cultivated Prunus L. species worldwide, often invading the trees via their rootstocks. In a series of greenhouse trials, resistance to Phytophthora was tested in new and standard rootstocks for cultivated stone fruits, including almond. Successive sets of the rootstocks, propagated as hardwood cuttings or via micropropagation, were transplanted into either noninfested potting soil or potting soil infested with Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schöt., Phytophthora citricola Sawada, Phytophthora megasperma Drechs, or Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad & J.A. Abad. Soil flooding was included in all trials to facilitate pathogen infection. In some trials, soil flooding treatments were varied to examine their effects on the rootstocks in both the absence and presence of Phytophthora. Two to 3 months after transplanting, resistance to the pathogens was assessed based on the severity of root and crown rot. ‘Hansen 536’ was consistently more susceptible than ‘Lovell’, ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Atlas’, ‘Viking’, ‘Citation’, and ‘Marianna 2624’ to root and/or crown rot caused by P. cactorum, P. citricola, and P. megasperma. By contrast, susceptibility to P. niederhauserii was similarly high among all eight tested genotypes of peach, four genotypes of peach × almond, two genotypes of (almond × peach) × peach, and one genotype of plum × almond. Most plum hybrids were highly and consistently resistant to crown rot caused by P. niederhauserii, but only ‘Marianna 2624’ was highly resistant to both crown and root rot caused by all of the Phytophthora species. The results indicate that there is a broad tendency for susceptibility of peach × almond rootstocks and a broad tendency for resistance of plum hybrid rootstocks to multiple species of Phytophthora.
A mobile platform was developed for measuring midday canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception in orchards. The results presented are for almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia), but the mobile platform can be used in other orchard crops as well. The mobile platform is adjustable to accommodate orchard row spacing from 4.8 to 7.8 m and is equipped with a global positioning satellite (GPS) receiver and radar for positional assessment as well as three IR thermometers for measuring soil surface temperature. Data from the mobile platform are logged at 10 Hz and stored on a data logger. Custom software has been developed to process the data. The mobile platform was used extensively for mapping midday canopy PAR interception in almond and walnut orchards in 2009 and 2010. The mobile platform produced comparable results to those collected with a handheld light bar with the advantage of being able to cover much larger areas and compare these data to mechanically harvested yield data over the same area. For almond orchards, midday canopy PAR interception peaked at ≈70% at an orchard age of ≈12 years. For walnut orchards, midday canopy PAR interception continued to increase to ≈15 years of age and peaked at a level above 80%. The mobile platform was also able to follow seasonal development of midday canopy PAR interception in young and mature orchards. This technology has potential for evaluating new varieties in terms of productivity per unit PAR intercepted, in evaluating hand pruning or mechanical hedging practices in terms of impact on PAR interception/productivity as well as evaluating effectiveness of insect or disease management treatments. It also has potential as a reference point for grower self-assessment to evaluate orchard canopy development compared with other orchards of similar variety, spacing, etc. Finally, this technology could be used as ground truth referencing for remotely sensed data.
For years, strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa L.) runner plant nurseries have relied on methyl bromide (MB) fumigation of soil to produce healthy transplants. Methyl bromide, however, has been phased out due to its environmental risks. The potential for alternative fumigants to replace MB was evaluated at low and high elevation strawberry nurseries in California. The alternative fumigant iodomethane plus chloropicrin (IMPic) and a nonfumigated control (NF) were compared to methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBPic) at a low elevation nursery (LEN) and at a high elevation nursery (HEN) near Susanville, Calif. At a HEN near Macdoel, Calif., MBPic was compared to alternative fumigants IMPic, 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin mixture (Telone C35) followed by dazomet, chloropicrin (Pic) followed by dazomet and NF. Plants produced at the LEN were transplanted at the Macdoel HEN to measure the effects of soil fumigant history on plant health and runner plant production. Plants produced at both high elevation nurseries were evaluated for fruit yield and quality at two commercial fruit production sites in soils previously fumigated with MBPic or Pic. Runner plant production at the nurseries was similar in plots fumigated with either MBPic or alternative fumigants. All fumigation treatments had higher runner plant production than plants produced for two production cycles on NF soils. Generally, fruit yields from nursery plants produced on soils fumigated with IMPic, Pic followed by dazomet, or Telone C35 followed by dazomet, were similar to fruit yields from plants produced on MBPic fumigated soils. Overall, our results indicate that preplant soil treatments with IMPic, Pic followed by dazomet, and Telone C35 followed by dazomet, are potential alternatives to MBPic fumigation for strawberry runner plant nurseries. Fruit yields by plants in MBPic and Pic fumigated soils were comparable; however, they were more variable in Pic fumigated soils. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), methyl bromide, methyl iodide (iodomethane), trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin), tetrahydro-3, 5-dimethyl-2 H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (dazomet).
Species of Phytophthora are serious soilborne pathogens of persian (english) walnut, causing crown and root rot and associated production losses worldwide. To facilitate the development of improved walnut rootstocks, we examined resistance of 48 diverse clones and seedlings of Juglans species to P. cinnamomi and P. citricola. Plants were micropropagated, acclimatized to a greenhouse environment, and then exposed to the pathogens in artificially infested potting soil mix. Inoculated plants, as well as noninoculated controls, were subjected to soil flooding for 48 hours every 2 weeks to facilitate infection by the pathogens. Two to 3 months after inoculation, resistance to the pathogens was assessed according to the severity of crown and root rot. Clonal hybrids of J. californica × J. regia were highly susceptible to the pathogens (means 52% to 76% root crown length rotted), while several clones of J. microcarpa × J. regia were significantly less susceptible (means 8% to 79% crown length rotted). Among clones of other parentages tested, including: J. microcarpa, (J. californica × J. nigra) × J. regia, J. hindsii × J. regia, (J. hindsii × J. regia) × J. regia, [(J. major × J. hindsii) × J. nigra] × J. regia, and J. nigra × J. regia, responses varied, but tended to be intermediate. When ‘Serr’ scions were budded or grafted on J. microcarpa × J. regia clone ‘RX1’ or Paradox (J. hindsii × J. regia) seedling rootstocks in a commercial orchard infested with P. cinnamomi, all trees on ‘RX1’ remained healthy, whereas only 49% of those on Paradox survived. Thus, useful resistance to Phytophthora is available among J. microcarpa × J. regia hybrids and is evident in ‘RX1’ rootstock.