During Summer 2005, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore') trees planted at the Colorado State University Agricultural Research Development and Education Center in 1996 were exposed to simulated drought by restricting irrigation for 33 to 41 days. During this period, predawn leaf water potentials in drought-stressed trees progressively dropped to a low of –2.04 MPa, while the control plot was maintained with full irrigation such that predawn leaf water potentials did not fall below –0.5 MPa. On 24 Aug. 2005, 31 days into this drought cycle, mid-day leaf water potentials and stomatal conductance were measured at –3.0 MPa and 22.63 mmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. Measurements in control trees collected at about the same time were –2.0 MPa and 169 mmol·m-2·s-1. The dramatic reduction in stomatal conductance in the drought-stressed trees began at about 10:30 a.m. and continued into the evening. Once irrigation was resumed, drought stressed trees rebounded from depressed predawn leaf water potentials and mid-day leaf water potentials and stomatal conductance and reached levels similar to control trees in 2 to 5 days. Stem flow gauges indicate that, during this period, fully hydrated control trees used about 250 liters/day.
Greg Litus and James Klett
Amaya Atucha and Greg Litus
The use of biochar as a soil amendment has generated interest all over the world, and it has been advocated as a means to improve soil fertility and sequester carbon. The objective of this study was to test if the use of pinewood biochar could reduce the detrimental effects of replant disease (RD) on peach tree growth and biomass production. An RD-susceptible peach rootstock, Lovell, was grown in soil from a peach replant site (control), sterilized soil (sterilized), and biochar-amended soil at 10% and 20% (v/v) [low biochar (LB) and high biochar (HB), respectively], all from the same site. Trunk diameter increase was measured weekly; total aboveground and belowground biomass was determined by harvesting a subsample of plants at 11, 22, and 33 weeks after planting. Soil samples, and foliar and root tissue samples were collected before each harvesting date and analyzed for nutrient content. Total aboveground and belowground biomass production was significantly higher in the biochar and sterilized soil treatment (S) compared with the control. Root carbon (C*) content was significantly greater in the HB treatment compared with the control. Soil nitrate-N was significantly greater in the HB treatment by the third harvesting date, and foliar magnesium (Mg) concentrations were significantly higher in both biochar treatments for all harvesting dates. The results from this study provide evidence that biochar may alleviate RD in peach trees.
Greg Litus and James Klett
In May 2004, at the request of local nursery owners, young Acer ×freemanii 'Autumn Blaze' (Autumn Blaze maple) trees previously grown in a number 20 (#20) container pot-in-pot (PIP) system were planted at the Colorado State University Horticultural Farm alongside similarly sized trees field grown, balled and burlapped (B&B). These trees were planted using methods recommended by the International Society of Arboriculture with half receiving 30% by volume soil amendment consisting of Organix compost mixed with the native soils. In addition, five trees grown for one year using the #20 PIP container system were maintained a second year in the same containers and compared to five trees transferred to #45 containers. After one season, the PIP-grown trees showed significantly more shoot growth and increased trunk caliper than the B&B trees. The application of amendments had no effect on the growth for either the B&B or PIP trees. Trees maintained in PIP containers for a second year had similar growth regardless of the container size.
Todd C. Einhorn, Horst W. Caspari, Steve Green, and Greg Litus
One-year-old `Gala'/M7 apple trees were potted into 30-L containers and approach-grafted about 45 cm above the graft union in late Spring 2003. Trees were grown with both tops for the remainder of the 2003 season in a greenhouse. In Apr. 2004, one of the tops was removed. Trees were fully watered by an overhead irrigation system until July 2004, when trees were subjected to one of four irrigation regimes: control received >100% of ETc applied evenly to the two pots; PRD100 received >100% ETc applied to one pot only; and two regimes received 50% ETc applied to either one (PRD50) or both pots (DI50). Both gravimetric (tripod) and volumetric (time-domain reflectometry) soil moisture measurements were taken daily prior to and after irrigations. In addition, heavy isotope H2O (18O) was applied to one of the two root compartments and analyzed in the leaves to further determine the validity of the model. Sap flow was monitored in six split-rooted trees using miniaturized heat-pulse probes inserted into the stem above the graft union and into each of the two root systems below the graft union. Under fully irrigated conditions, root sap flow was proportional to root trunk cross-sectional area, and was not a function of root system origin (i.e., roots of mother plant with original top remaining or roots of daughter plant with original top detached). Water uptake from a previously dried root zone was rapid when the irrigated side was switched, but much more gradual when the other side was maintained wet. Interactions between soil moisture and sap flow in relation to factors governing canopy demand will be presented.