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  • Author or Editor: Gokul Ghale x
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This study evaluated whether adding either sucrose or urea to the soak water could enhance production of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) on sawdust blocks. For both sucrose and urea experiments, sawdust blocks inoculated with “QR” and “26” strains of L. edodes were placed in the soak water amended with either sucrose or urea at the first soaking only, at the second soaking only, or at all six soakings. Control blocks were soaked in tap water. In Experiment I, blocks were soaked in water containing 0, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm (mg·L–1) sucrose. Strain 26 produced significantly more mushrooms and greater mushroom weight than QR. Addition of sucrose to the soak water resulted in fewer mushrooms harvested and lower yields than controls. There was a significant interaction between the sucrose rate and strain for both mushroom number and biological efficiency (BE). Both strains produced fewer mushrooms and less BE as the concentration of sucrose in the soak water increased; however, QR was less affected by the increasing concentration of sucrose. In Experiment II, sawdust blocks inoculated with QR and 26 strains of shiitake were soaked in water containing 0, 2400, or 3600 ppm (mg·L–1) urea. Strain 26 produced significantly more mushrooms and greater BE than QR. The addition of 2400 ppm of urea to the soak water resulted in more mushrooms per block harvested and a 12% increase in BE over the control. The 2400 ppm rate added at each soak produced more mushrooms and mushroom weight than the control and also produced more mushrooms than any of the blocks in the higher rate of urea (3600 ppm) treatments. Adding 16.9 oz (480 g) of urea per tank to obtain 2400 ppm urea in the soak water results in the minimal increase in cost of about $0.20 per soak (52 sawdust blocks), but potentially increases the value of the mushrooms harvested from each block by $0.75. In an average-sized shiitake mushroom block production facility containing 500 blocks, continuous addition of 2400 ppm urea to the soak water would provide an increased return of about $375 over the entire season.

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This work was conducted to determine if characteristics of the hardwood cutting (such as size of the cutting and the number of buds) could be correlated to rooting and subsequent development. Dormant wood of 13 cultivars of Actinidia arguta were cut into lengths which varied from 3.5-18 cm containing from 1-9 buds. After being treated with 0.3% indolebutyric acid, cuttings were then stuck into Oasis Rootcubes and placed under intermittent mist. Cultivars of Actinidia arguta included 74-46, 74-55, 124-40, 125-40, 127-40, 119-40-B. “Meader Male”, “Meader Female #1”, “Geneva #1”, “Ananasnaja”, “Michigan State”, arguta cordifolia 1563-51 and a New Zealand cordifolia selection. There was a significant effect of cultivar on number of roots, root grade, length of roots, and callus. All rooting parameters were highly correlated with length of the cutting and number of buds in active growth. Caliper was negatively correlated with only root grade.

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Root development of hardwood cuttings of Actinidia arguta was investigated in relation to the size of cuttings and the number of buds. Dormant shoots of 13 Actinidia arguta cultivars and lines were cut into lengths varying from 3.5 to 18 cm and containing one to nine buds. After being treated with 0.3% indolebutyric acid in talc, cuttings were stuck into oasis foam cubes and placed under intermittent mist. Actinidia arguta lines and cultivars included 74-46, 74-55, 124-40, 125-40, 127-40, 119-40-B, `Meader Male', `Meader Female #1', `Geneva #1', `Ananasnaja', `Michigan State', A. arguta cordifolia (Miq.) Bean 1563-51, and a New Zealand A. arguta cordifolia selection. Cultivar significantly affected number of roots, root grade, and length of longest root. In general, cultivars with the highest rooting percentages also had the most and longest roots and the highest root grades. The best cuttings for root formation had eight to nine buds (with three to four in active growth), diameters <2 mm, and lengths >10 cm. Cuttings with five to seven buds (with one to three in active growth), diameters between 2 to 8 mm, and lengths >8 cm exhibited the best root development in terms of number of roots formed, root length, and root grade.

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The landscape plants that exist on the Alabama A&M University, Normal, campus are readily accessible for a plant identification and use course. Managing location, health, and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plants were inventoried; entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a relational database manager; characterized; and assigned locations on campus. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek Scanmaker IIxe and the image was imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand-drawn images and then importing them into MacPaint. These bit-mapped images were duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. Students were exposed to landscape plant materials, database managers, and computer graphics capabilities. This approach has other advantages: database information can be easily coordinated with physical location, plants can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated. The database is used in the landscape plant materials class as a teaching tool and for self-guided tours.

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In teaching a course in landscape plant materials, the landscape plants which exist on campus are an important and accessible resource. Management of location, health. and cultivar information is critical to optimizing this resource. As a classroom assignment, campus plant materials were inventoried, entered into FileMaker Pro 2.1, a database manager, characterized and assigned locations. The campus map was scanned using a Microtek ScanMaker IIXE and the image imported into MacDraw II. A symbol library, which included symbols for trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, was developed by scanning hand drawn images and then importing them into MacPain. These bit-mapped images could then be duplicated as often as necessary and placed in appropriate locations on the campus map in MacDraw II. In this way, students are exposed not only to landscape plant materials but also to database managers and computer graphics capabilities. This approach also has the advantage that database information can be easily coordinated with physical location. plant materials can be sorted based on their characteristics, and information can be routinely and easily revised and updated.

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