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  • Author or Editor: Gerald L. Klingaman x
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Two impact sprinklers, a traditional round-patterned design (Rain Bird Maxi-Bird) and a newly developed square-patterned design (Square Shooter) were tested under field conditions to compare the uniformity of their precipitation patterns. The Square Shooter sprinkler requires half as many sprinkler heads as the Rain Bird to cover the same area with head-to-head coverage. The Square Shooter sprinkler, with a coefficient of variation of 0.124, produced a more-uniform distribution of precipitation than the Rain Bird sprinkler, with a coefficient of variation of 0.215. Square Shooter also delivered water more accurately within the boundaries of the plot than Rain Bird, which had more of the total precipitation falling outside the plot area than Square Shooter. The new square-patterned design could allow installation of heads on only one edge of an area with the same, or better, uniformity of coverage as traditional perimeter installations.

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Amaryllis bulb production is conducted in Africa, and to a lesser extent in Central America, Holland and Israel. Preliminary studies have shown bulb production is feasible in zone 6b using unheated greenhouses and thermal blankets during cold periods. Spun bound polyester (Reemay) and polystyrene foam (Sentinel) provided a maximum of 9C protection over outside conditions. Amaryllis bulbs have been uninjured during two successive winters. A twin scale propagation experiment was conducted on the cultivar Appleblossom. Cuttings 15mm wide that were placed in closed, vermiculite-filled plastic bags or uncovered, vermiculite-filled plastic trays produced 1.5 bulbs per cutting. Cuttings 7.5mm wide that were placed in soil in plastic bags or open flats averaged .34 bulbs per cutting. From 75 to 80 bulblets were produced per mother bulb using wide cuttings in soil or vermiculite or narrow cuttings in vermiculite.

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In 1993, the Arkansas poultry industry produced 1.048 billion broilers with a total live weight of 2.54 million metric tons. Depending on the type of processing used, from 30% to 50% of live weight can end up in the waste stream. Three primary waste-stream products are generated by the poultry industry: feather meal, poultry meal, and bone meal. Feather meal contains ≈14% N, poultry meal 11% N, and bone meal 8% N. Byproduct additions were made to tomato, marigold, and impatiens transplants at the rate of 6, 12, 24 and 48 g/10-cm pot. The two highest rates killed plants outright, while the lower rates resulted in some growth reduction when compared to the control. Studies are under way to further evaluate the use of these byproducts in an organic production system for tomatoes and bedding plants.

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Eight species of woody nursery stock were grown in 4 liter containers and fertilized with a conventional resin-coated slow release material (at 3.5 g N per container) or composted poultry manure applied as a top dressed or incorporated with nitrogen rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.2 g N per container. In all cases the conventional resin-coated product outperformed composted poultry manure by factors of 2 to 3 times (for height, dry weight and quality score). Although a rate response was observed with the composted, even the highest rate of nitrogen application produced plants with dry weights of 1/2 that of the control. When comparing the sources of composted poultry manure alone, the 4-4-4 product outperformed the 2-2-2 compost, even with equivalent rates of nitrogen, for 3 of the 8 species studied. Incorporation proved superior to topdressing for the 4-4-4 source but topdressing was superior for the 2-2-2 material. These studies are part of a nutrient partitioning experiment being conducted to determine the fate of nitrogen released from composted poultry manure.

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Twelve to 15 year old silver maple and wild cherry trees were top pruned severely to a height of 5m and then trunk injected with Prunit 20g/l at 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 g/inch of trunk diameter or were treated with a trunk pour of Prunit 50W at the rate of 0, 0.5 or 1.0 g/inch of trunk diameter. Treatment effects were not obvious on any trees until 12 months after treatment. After 36 months maples receiving the two highest rates had made less than 50 cm of growth above the pruned top of the tree whereas the untreated control had produced 3 m of new shoot growth. The 0.1 g rate produced less aesthetic disruption to the appearance of the tree and reduced growth to 1.2 m. Wild cherry trees responded similarly but the amount of regrowth following pruning was less. Maple trees receiving the trunk pour treatment exhibited a 50% reduction in new shoot growth 36 months after treatment.

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Twelve to 15 year old silver maple and wild cherry trees were top pruned severely to a height of 5m and then trunk injected with Prunit 20g/l at 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 g/inch of trunk diameter or were treated with a trunk pour of Prunit 50W at the rate of 0, 0.5 or 1.0 g/inch of trunk diameter. Treatment effects were not obvious on any trees until 12 months after treatment. After 36 months maples receiving the two highest rates had made less than 50 cm of growth above the pruned top of the tree whereas the untreated control had produced 3 m of new shoot growth. The 0.1 g rate produced less aesthetic disruption to the appearance of the tree and reduced growth to 1.2 m. Wild cherry trees responded similarly but the amount of regrowth following pruning was less. Maple trees receiving the trunk pour treatment exhibited a 50% reduction in new shoot growth 36 months after treatment.

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`Lynwood Gold' forsythia and `Jessica' chrysanthemum were grown for 12 weeks in a nursery mix consisting of 5 parts composted pine bark, 1 part composted hardwood bark and 1 part sand. Fertilization was by topdress applications of composted poultry manure at rates of 1, 2 and 3 g N per container, resin coated slow release fertilizer at 3 g N per container, or with constant liquid fertilization at 200 mg N per liter. Leachate samples were collected weekly and nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and total nitrogen determined. At 12 weeks, plant dry weight and the amount of nitrogen in the plant, media and leachate determined. Total nitrogen loss in the leachate for the compost was rapid during the first three weeks and then fell to low levels. The resin coated fertilizer released a higher and constant nitrogen flux during the study than the composted manure but total nitrogen loss over the 12 week period was lower than for compost. The leachate nitrogen in the constant liquid fertilization treatment increased during the study. The relative proportion of nitrogen in the medium, compost and leachate will be discussed.

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Abstract

Ten species of bedding plants were seeded into either a sphagnum peatmoss or pine bark-based germination medium. Marigolds and peppers had higher germination percentages and petunia, scarlet sage, verbena, marigold, impatiens, coleus, tomato, and pepper were heavier at time of transplanting when germinated in the sphagnum peat-based medium. Plant weight was markedly decreased at the time of sale by early checks in seedling growth resulting from seed germination in the bark-based medium.

Open Access

Abstract

Forty-five chrysanthemum cultivars exposed to ozone in a controlled environment chamber exhibited a wide range of sensitivity with several showing sufficient sensitivity to be damaged by ambient oxidant concentrations. Chemical protection of foliage from ambient air pollution was tested on pollution sensitive ‘King’s Ransom’ and pollution tolerant ‘Yellow Jess Williams’. Chemical protectants included 1) benomyl, 2) thiophanate ethyl, 3) triarimol, 4) ancymidol, 5) SADFI, and 6) Folicote. No visible injury was observed on unprotected ‘Yellow Jess Williams’, but extensive injury occurred on older foliage of ‘King’s Ransom’. Full season protection was observed on ‘King’s Ransom’ receiving treatments of benomyl, thiophanate ethyl or ancymidol but ancymidol delayed anthesis and reduced flower count.

Open Access

Euonymous fortunei `Coloratus' (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. (purpleleaf wintercreeper euonymus) is a groundcover species commonly grown in the landscape and known for its characteristic purplish-red color in the fall. This species is dimorphic, having both juvenile and adult forms present in established plants. Young plants, planted from 5.7-cm containers, were grown under full sun and 60% shade and evaluated for 1 year from May 1998. Four fertilizer treatments, up to four applications, were applied over the year. Data collected included the percent of adult and juvenile plants per plot, percent canopy cover, plant quality, and fresh and dry weights of pruned plant material and whole plants. Results showed that 73% of Euonymus planted in the shade were “adult-like” in form, while only 44% of Euonymus planted in the sun were “adult-like” in form. These results were analyzed with the percentage canopy cover determined for March, April, and May 1999 and showed no interaction of the two variables. By the end of the study, the mean percent of canopy cover was 77% under the shade and 74% under the sun. These values were not significantly different. While it appeared that the maturity of the plant did not effect the percent of groundcover coverage in a plot, the more mature or “adult-like” plants were visually undesirable within a plot of juvenile plants, and vice versa due to morphological differences.

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