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  • Author or Editor: Gerald Henry x
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The tolerance of velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) to the herbicide fenoxaprop is not known. In greenhouse experiments velvet bentgrass cultivars SR7200 and Vesper had a much greater degree of tolerance to fenoxaprop at rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.30 kg·ha-1 relative to L-93 creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). SR7200 and Vesper were tolerant to fenoxaprop at 0.15 kg·ha-1 or lower and growth reductions did not exceed 10% at the highest fenoxaprop rate of 0.30 kg·ha-1. In contrast, growth reduction of L-93 creeping bentgrass was evident at the lowest application of fenoxaprop at 0.01 kg·ha-1 and increased as fenoxaprop rates increased, reaching as high 58% at 0.30 kg·ha-1. Field experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 to compare the tolerance of established SR7200 velvet bentgrass and Penn A-4 creeping bentgrass maintained at 3.2 mm to three sequential applications at 21 day intervals of fenoxaprop at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.07 kg·ha-1. Turf quality of SR7200 was equal to the untreated following all fenoxaprop applications except the third sequential application at 0.07 kg·ha-1. Penn A-4 turf quality was consistently reduced compared to the untreated following fenoxaprop applications of 0.04 and 0.07 kg·ha-1. Turf density of SR7200 was not affected by three sequential applications of fenoxaprop at 0.02 and 0.04 kg·ha-1 but was reduced by 8% at 0.07 kg·ha-1. Penn A-4 turf density was reduced by 10 and 33% following three sequential applications of fenoxaprop at 0.04 and 0.07 kg·ha-1, respectively. Results from these studies showed that the velvet bentgrass cultivars were more tolerant to fenoxaprop, compared to the creeping bentgrass cultivars evaluated. Chemical names used: (+)-ethyl2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]p henoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop). 3,5-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-S,S-dimethylester (dithiopyr).

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Dallisgrass control in response to various timings and frequencies of single and combination herbicide treatments was evaluated from 2010 to 2012 in Lubbock, TX. Treatments included thiencarbazone-methyl + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron-methyl (TFH) at 15 + 31 + 47 or 22 + 45 + 70 g a.i./ha, foramsulfuron at 106 g a.i./ha, and foramsulfuron + thiencarbazone-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + dicamba (foramsulfuron + TID) at 106 + (22 + 5 + 147) g a.i./ha. Applications of TFH provided ≤65% dallisgrass control by 10 weeks after initial treatment (WAIT) across two rates (15 + 31 + 47 or 22 + 45 + 70 g a.i./ha) and three application timings [September, October, or September followed by (fb) a sequential October application]. At 37 WAIT, sequential applications of TFH at 15 + 31 + 47 g a.i./ha resulted in 92% dallisgrass control. Similarly, application of TFH at 22 + 45 + 70 g a.i./ha provided 94% and 97% dallisgrass control when applied in September or September fb October, respectively. However, single October applications of TFH only provided ≤55% dallisgrass control 37 WAIT. Sequential combinations of foramsulfuron + TID at 106 + (22 + 5 + 147) g a.i./ha provided 93% dallisgrass control 37 WAIT, equivalent to single applications of TFH at 15 + 31 + 47 g a.i./ha and sequential treatments at 15 + 31 + 47 or 22 + 45 + 70 g a.i./ha. However, initial control (10 WAIT) with foramsulfuron + TID was moderate (63%). Sequential foramsulfuron applications (106 g a.i./ha) resulted in inadequate dallisgrass control (35% and 48%) 10 and 37 WAIT, respectively. Results from this study suggest that long-term dallisgrass control may be achieved when TFH is applied in September or September fb October. Applications initiated in October resulted in inadequate control, regardless of rate, which may be linked to reduced herbicidal absorption and translocation due to the onset of dallisgrass dormancy in late fall. Chemical names used: methyl 4-[(4,5-dihydro-3-methoxy-4-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)carbonylsulfamoyl]-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxylate (thiencarbazone-methyl); 2-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]-4-formamido-N,N-dimethylbenzamide (foramsulfuron); methyl 3-chloro-5-[(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoylsulfamoyl]-1-methylpyrazole-4-carboxylate (halosulfuron-methyl); sodium (5-iodo-2-methoxycarbonylphenyl)sulfonyl-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)carbamoyl]azanide (iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium); and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba).

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Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one of the most widely used species for sports fields in temperate climates because of its high wear tolerance. However, wear tolerance of cultivars may vary according to local environmental conditions and turfgrass management. In this study, we evaluated the wear tolerance of six perennial ryegrass cultivars (Adagio, Apple SGL, Equate, Firebird, Principal 2, Tetradark) under two fertility treatments (100 or 200 kg N⋅ha−1⋅yr−1) over 2 years. The field trial was performed at the Experimental Agricultural Farm at the University of Padova in northeastern Italy in a silty loam soil. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block with three replications and subjected to three traffic events per week using a sports field wear simulator. Turfgrass quality (TQ), percent green cover (PGC), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were recorded every 2 weeks and averaged over each month. Although perennial ryegrass cultivars responded differently to wear stress, the higher nitrogen (N) rate positively affected the TQ of them all. ‘Tetradrak’ and ‘Equate’ had the lowest TQ, especially during the active growing seasons (spring and autumn). However, ‘Tetradark’ was particularly negatively affected during the cool fall months. The impact of a higher N fertilization rate on PGC and NDVI appeared to be more pronounced in spring than in fall. Furthermore, slight differences among cultivars and treatments were observed in summer and winter when temperatures were a limiting growth factor.

Open Access

Wildflowers attract wildlife, increase pollinator habitat, and enhance the aesthetic value of the landscape. Wildflower establishment is increasingly part of an effort to reduce maintained turfgrass on golf courses, lawns, and other maintained environments. Weed competition decreases wildflower establishment and results in poor long-term stands. Research was conducted in a controlled environment to investigate the tolerance of wildflower species to common postemergence herbicides. Wildflower species included California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.), common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.), garden coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata L.), partridge pea [Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene], plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench], rosering gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella Foug.), and violet prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.). Herbicides evaluated were fluazifop at 0.28 kg⋅ha–1 a.i., mesotrione at 0.14 kg⋅ha–1 a.i., clopyralid at 0.29 kg⋅ha–1 a.i., bentazon at 0.56 kg⋅ha–1 a.i., halosulfuron at 0.053 kg⋅ha–1 a.i., and imazaquin at 0.42 kg⋅ha–1 a.i. An untreated check was included for comparison. Excessive damage (≥ 53% phytotoxicity) was observed on all wildflower species in response to clopyralid, except for California poppy. Fluazifop and bentazon were relatively safe (≤ 19% phytotoxicity, regardless of herbicide) on all wildflower species; however, bentazon resulted in ≥ 40% aboveground biomass reduction in several species. Common sunflower and garden coreopsis were susceptible to halosulfuron (37% and 73% phytotoxicity, respectively) and imazaquin (37% and 87% phytotoxicity, respectively), but on all other wildflower species, phytotoxicity was ≤ 18%. Although both halosulfuron and imazaquin only resulted in ≤ 18% phytotoxicity to purple coneflower, a 43% to 44% aboveground biomass reduction was recorded. Mesotrione was only safe on California poppy and cornflower (≤ 11% phytotoxicity and ≤ 24% aboveground biomass reduction). Results suggest high tolerance variability across herbicides and species considered, but may prompt new investigation of safety and utility within field and production scenarios.

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Field trials were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine the potential of converting pure stands of annual bluegrass [Poa annua L. spp. reptans (Hauskins) Timm.], maintained at a 3.2-mm height, to bentgrass (Agrostis spp.). Parameters evaluated included three overseeding dates and four cultivars from two bentgrass species. Overseeding dates were 1 July, 18 Aug., and 18 Sept. 2000 and 27 June, 17 Aug., and 17 Sept. 2001. Three creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.) cultivars (`Penncross', `L-93', and `Penn A-4') and one velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) cultivar (`SR7200') were evaluated. Initial bentgrass establishment was evident across all seeding dates and cultivars in October of the year of overseeding. However, the 1 July 2000 and 27 June 2001 overseeding dates had the highest levels of bentgrass coverage 12 months after overseeding across all cultivars except `Penncross'. Coverage of `Penn A-4' and `L-93' increased to 72% in the 1 July 2000 overseeding date, 24 months after the initial overseeding. When overseeded in early summer, velvet bentgrass `SR7200' showed the greatest potential for establishment with annual bluegrass. `SR7200' and creeping bentgrass cultivars `Penn A-4' and `L-93' exhibited the greatest potential for long-term competitiveness with annual bluegrass, while `Penncross' exhibited the lowest potential.

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Slow growth and establishment rate has become a major limitation to the increased use of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) as a turfgrass surface. Two separate field studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype, planting date, and plug spacing on zoysiagrass establishment. Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to quantify the establishment rate of six zoysiagrass genotypes from vegetative plugs. ‘Meyer’ exhibited the largest plug diameter (22 cm) 6 weeks after planting (WAP). In contrast, ‘Diamond’ exhibited the smallest plug diameter (13 cm) 6 WAP. A similar trend was observed 12 WAP. ‘Meyer’, ‘Zorro’, and ‘Shadow Turf’ exhibited the largest plug diameters (60, 58, and 57 cm, respectively) 12 WAP. In contrast, ‘Emerald’ and ‘Diamond’ exhibited the smallest plug diameters (41 and 40 cm, respectively) 12 WAP. Although statistically different, all zoysiagrass genotypes reached similar establishment 18 WAP indicating that plugging these genotypes in a comparable environment and using techniques described in this research may result in analogous long-term (18 weeks) establishment. Field experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to determine the optimum planting date and plug spacing of ‘Shadow Turf’ zoysiagrass. ‘Shadow Turf’ zoysiagrass plugs planted on 28 July 2006 (11% to 65% cover) and 14 June 2007 (5% to 39% cover) exhibited the greatest increase in turfgrass cover 6 WAP, except for plugs planted 15.2 cm apart on 26 May 2006 (74% cover). Zoysiagrass cover was greatest for plugs planted on 26 May 2006 (63% to 100%) and 17 May 2007 (46% to 97%) 16 WAP regardless of plug spacing. These planting dates corresponded to the highest accumulative growing degree-days (GDD) experienced by all planting dates in both years. Plugs planted on 15.2-cm centers exhibited the greatest zoysiagrass cover 6 and 16 WAP regardless of planting date. Using late spring/early summer planting dates and 15.2- to 30.5-cm plug spacings may result in the quickest turfgrass cover when establishing ‘Shadow Turf’ zoysiagrass from plugs.

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Previous research involving turfgrass response to soil moisture used methodology that may compromise root morphology or fail to control outside environmental factors. Water-table depth gradient tanks were employed in the greenhouse to identify habitat specialization of hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] and manilagrass [Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.] maintained at 2.5 and 5.1 cm. Turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy temperature (CT), and root biomass (RB) were used as metrics for plants grown in monoculture in sandy clay loam soil. Mowing height did not affect growth of turfgrass species in response to soil moisture. Turfgrass quality, NDVI, and RB were greatest, whereas CT was lowest at wetter levels [27- to 58-cm depth to the water-table (DWT)] of each tank where plants were growing at or above field capacity. However, bermudagrass RB was greatest at 27-cm DWT, whereas manilagrass RB at 27-cm DWT was lower than RB at 42.5- to 73.5-cm DWT in 2013 and lower than all other levels in 2014. Both species responded similarly to droughty levels (120- to 151-cm DWT) of the tanks. Turfgrass quality, NDVI, and RB were lowest, whereas CT was highest at higher droughty levels. Bermudagrass may be more competitive than manilagrass when soil moisture is high whereas both species are less competitive when soil moisture is low.

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Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) are two of the most troublesome weed species in managed turfgrass. These rhizomatous, perennial grass species affect appearance, texture, and playability of turf in home lawns, golf courses, and athletic fields. The severity and prevalence of these problem species as well as the difficulty of achieving control with herbicide management alone invite the examination of their realized niches for clues to improved management tactics. The distribution of these species was evaluated in both fairways and roughs of three holes on each of two golf courses in North Carolina. Golf courses were selected based on the presence of both weed species. Individual plants were mapped using a high-precision global positioning system unit. This unit was also used to delineate between the rough and fairway height of cut as well as obtain elevation characteristics of each hole. Soil moisture and soil compaction estimates were obtained by sampling on a 9-m grid. Environmental characteristics used for χ2 analysis consisted of mowing height, soil compaction, soil moisture, and elevation. Data were subjected to χ2 analysis to determine if the existing distribution of Paspalum spp. differed from an expected random distribution across all environmental factors. Bahiagrass growth and distribution was more affected by mowing height than dallisgrass. Bahiagrass was predominantly distributed in the rough, whereas dallisgrass occurred at both mowing heights. Similar responses were observed for both species with regard to soil compaction. Higher plant density for both species was observed in moderately compacted soil (40 to 60 N·m−2). Bahiagrass distribution was unaffected by soil moisture. Dallisgrass density was lower in areas with low volumetric soil water content (less than 27%). Although different from an expected uniform distribution on all six holes, the elevation with the highest Paspalum spp. density varied across holes. Results suggest that it may be possible to disadvantage Paspalum spp. in competitive interactions with desirable species through the alteration of landscape attributes. Substrate selection during construction, aeration, and mowing height may help create a landscape that discourages Paspalum spp. infestation.

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Establishing turfgrass in shaded environments can create a unique maintenance challenge. Shading reduces zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) photosynthesis and results in reduced turfgrass aesthetic quality. Zoysiagrass is a warm-season, perennial turfgrass that forms a dense, uniform turf through the production of rhizomes and stolons. It has demonstrated good tolerance to growth in reduced light intensity environments. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the relative difference in growth response to three light intensities (0%, 50%, and 90% shade) among six zoysiagrass genotypes under artificial shade conditions. Percent change in zoysiagrass plug diameter decreased as shade level increased 6 and 12 weeks after planting (WAP) regardless of year or genotype. ‘Diamond’ and ‘Shadow Turf’ exhibited the greatest percent change in plug diameter 12 WAP (60% to 69%) followed by the remaining zoysiagrass genotypes (21% to 56%) when grown under 50% shade, regardless of year. In 2006, no zoysiagrass genotype maintained acceptable turfgrass quality (6 or greater) 12 WAP when grown under 50% shade. However, ‘Diamond’ and ‘Shadow Turf’ exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality ratings (7.0 and 6.3) 12 WAP in 2007, whereas all other genotypes exhibited unacceptable turfgrass quality ratings (5.0 to 5.7). In 2006, ‘Shadow Turf’ zoysiagrass exhibited the greatest percent increase in plug diameter (21%) followed by ‘DALZ 0501’ (15%) and ‘Diamond’ (5%) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. All other zoysiagrass genotypes exhibited decreases in plug diameter (31% to 87%). In 2007, ‘Shadow Turf’ and ‘Diamond’ exhibited the greatest percent change in plug diameter (11%) followed by ‘DALZ 0501’ (7%) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. All other zoysiagrass genotypes exhibited decreases in plug diameter (17% to 38%). Turfgrass quality declined as shade level increased 6 and 12 WAP regardless of year or genotype. ‘Shadow Turf’ and ‘Diamond’ exhibited the highest turfgrass quality ratings (4.7 and 3.7, respectively, in 2006 and 5.3 in 2007) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. Proper zoysiagrass cultivar selection may improve turfgrass growth and quality under low light intensity while increasing turfgrass options for shaded environments.

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Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) control with postemergence herbicides is inefficient and inconsistent from year to year. Control with acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides may be enhanced through root absorption, but herbicide movement through dense turfgrass canopies may be difficult. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of verticutting on the postemergence control of dallisgrass and the presence of ALS-inhibiting herbicides within the soil profile. Long-term dallisgrass control [17 weeks after initial treatment (WAIT)] was enhanced in response to verticutting at one of two locations. This may be attributed to differences in turfgrass management (mowing height) before trial initiation that impacted dallisgrass carbohydrate content and herbicide absorption. However, dallisgrass control with certain herbicides was enhanced at the second location in response to verticutting at earlier rating dates. Thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron (TFH) and trifloxysulfuron at 112 g·ha−1 a.i. and carrier volume of 1628 L·ha−1 (TRI High CV) following mowing + verticutting resulted in the greatest long-term control 17 WAIT at one of two trial locations, 86% and 85%, respectively. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that mowing + verticutting dallisgrass before treatment followed by irrigation led to an increase in herbicide presence within the soil profile, regardless of herbicide. Presence of TFH went from 6.4 to 8.2 mm, trifloxysulfuron at 28 g·ha−1 a.i. and carrier volume of 407 L·ha−1 went from 6.7 to 8.5 mm, and TRI High CV went from 8.6 to 11.8 mm.

Open Access