`Redhaven' peach [Purnus persica (L.) Batsch] trees which were either own-rooted (OR) or June-budded (JB) the previous year were headed back at planting to either (1) 70-85 cm above the soil surface (CH, conventional heading) or (2) the first bud 20-30 cm above the soil surface (LH, low heading). Propagation method had no effect on fruit yield in 1988 or trunk cross-sectional area; however, total yield in 1987, and the cululative yield for 1987 and 1988 were significantly greater for JB trees than for OR trees. LH reduced survival of OR trees, but not the JB ones. Cold injury was greater for the OR trees than for the JB ones. Neither propagation nor heading height influenced bloom density, fruit set in 1987, or fruit size in 1988. However, OR trees which were conventionally headed produced larger fruits in 1987 than did JB trees the same year.
The maturity indices of percent fruit drop, percent soluble solids, and flesh firmness of apples from trees with `Starkspur Supreme' scions on nine rootstocks were compared over the five-year period 1985-1989. The nine rootstocks included EMLA 7, EMLA 9, EMLA 26, EMLA 27, Mark, MAC 24, Ottawa 3, OAR 1, and M9.
The five-year averages of each of the maturity indices varied significantly among the nine stions. The average percent fruit drop was more strongly correlated with trunk cross-sectional area (r=0.572) than it was with cumulative yield efficiency (r=0.346). Flesh firmness was significantly correlated with cumulative yield efficiency (r=0.398) but not with either trunk cross-sectional area or cumulative yield. The average percent soluble solids was more significantly correlated with trunk cross-sectional area (r=0.770) than it was with either cumulative yield efficiency (r=0.383) or cumulative yield (r=0.637). It is suggested that tree size may be used as an indicator for predicting maturity in cases where little or no information is available on the effects of that particular rootstock on maturity.
In the article “Permanent Labels for Identifying Plant Materials”, by Dwight Wolfe and Gerald Brown (HortScience 22:662, August 1987), the second and third lines of the third paragraph appear at the bottom of the center column of text.
An experiment was initiated at the Univ. of Kentucky Research and Education orchard, Princeton, Ky., to determine the training practices needed to obtain early production and optimal fruit size from trees trained to either the slender spindle or the French axe system on vigorous sites. One-hundred-eighty trees (five rows, 32 trees per row) of `Golden Delicious' on M.9 rootstock were planted in May 1997, in a randomized complete-block design with eight treatment combinations, consisting of two training systems and four levels of training intensity. Trunk circumference averaged 61 cm at planting and did not vary significantly among rootstocks. A trellis was constructed, and trickle irrigation was installed. All trees are currently alive. Each season, over half the total time spent training the trees was spent during the first 5 weeks the trees were trained. About 2 minutes per week was needed to train each tree during the first 5 weeks, but only 45 seconds per week was needed in the sixth through the 16th week. Trunk circumference, yield, and average weight per fruit did not vary significantly in the analysis of variance. Training per kilogram of fruit averaged 4.2 minutes.
Each of the grape cultivars [Vitis species, (L) Batch], `Concord', `Himrod', `Challenger', `Reliance', `Glenora', `Moored', planted June 1983, and `Mars' planted Spring, 1987, was trained to the 4-cane Kniffin (KN) and the Geneva Double Curtain (GDC) systems. Yield per vine, pruning weight, number of nodes, cluster weight, number of berries per cluster, berry weight, and percent soluble solids were recorded. Vines from `Reliance' trained to the KN system produced fruit with significantly higher percent soluble solids than did vines trained to the GDC. No significant differences in percent soluble solids were observed between the two training systems for the other cultivars. `Concord' produced more kg/vine of pruning weight when trained to the KN system than when trained to the GDC. Pruning weight did not differ significantly between the two training systems for the other cultivars. Cultivars more productive (yield/vine) on the GDC trellis were `Concord', `Himrod', `Reliance' and `Moored' whereas `Challenger' was more productive when vines were trained to the KN system. No differences between the two training systems were observed for `Glenora' or `Mars'.
Labeling to identify plant material is an important procedure in plant science research, teaching, and extension. Labels for perennial plants should be durable and easy to read. Further, a labeling system should be economical and flexible in the size of the labels that may be used. We have developed a flexible labeling system that satisfies these requirements and offers other advantages as well. This labeling system was adapted from the ear tag labeling methods used in animal science (1). It uses Ritchey marking paint (RMP), a wire tie, and a plastic tag.
Yield data from a highbush blueberry planting established in 1993 at the Univ. of Kentucky Research and Education Center, Princeton, Ky., was collected over a 5-year period for eight cultivars. The economic impact of yield of each cultivar was calculated for each cultivar using a net present value model based on prevailing market prices and costs of production. These returns were compared across cultivars and an assessment of the economic potential for Kentucky growing conditions was considered. `Duke' and `Sierra' produced the most fruit over the 5-year period of this study. `Duke' was also the earliest ripening cultivar in the planting, with 14.3% of `Duke's fruit ripening during the first week of June. Sunrise also ripened early, with 7.7% of its fruit ripening during the first week of June. Picking for the other cultivars (`Sierra', `Bluecrop', `Blue Gold', `Toro', `Nelson', and `Patriot'), began during the second week of June and was finished for all cultivars by the end of the fourth week of June. An exception was `Nelson', which was picked through the first week of July. Despite relatively low yields observed in the first year of production, `Duke' had the highest net present values for the assumed 12-year life of the planting. The ranking of the other seven cultivars from highest to lowest in terms of their respective net present values was: `Sierra', `Blue Gold', `Bluecrop', `Toro', `Nelson', `Sunrise', and `Patriot'.
Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) control with postemergence herbicides is inefficient and inconsistent from year to year. Control with acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides may be enhanced through root absorption, but herbicide movement through dense turfgrass canopies may be difficult. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of verticutting on the postemergence control of dallisgrass and the presence of ALS-inhibiting herbicides within the soil profile. Long-term dallisgrass control [17 weeks after initial treatment (WAIT)] was enhanced in response to verticutting at one of two locations. This may be attributed to differences in turfgrass management (mowing height) before trial initiation that impacted dallisgrass carbohydrate content and herbicide absorption. However, dallisgrass control with certain herbicides was enhanced at the second location in response to verticutting at earlier rating dates. Thiencarbazone + foramsulfuron + halosulfuron (TFH) and trifloxysulfuron at 112 g·ha−1 a.i. and carrier volume of 1628 L·ha−1 (TRI High CV) following mowing + verticutting resulted in the greatest long-term control 17 WAIT at one of two trial locations, 86% and 85%, respectively. Greenhouse experiments confirmed that mowing + verticutting dallisgrass before treatment followed by irrigation led to an increase in herbicide presence within the soil profile, regardless of herbicide. Presence of TFH went from 6.4 to 8.2 mm, trifloxysulfuron at 28 g·ha−1 a.i. and carrier volume of 407 L·ha−1 went from 6.7 to 8.5 mm, and TRI High CV went from 8.6 to 11.8 mm.
Apple growers in Kentucky normally control pests on a preventative schedule involving fifteen or more chemical applications annually. IPM technology designed to provide growers information about the threat of diseases and insects was used in a demonstration plot in a Daviess County orchard and in the U.K. research orchard, Princeton. The IPM systems used in Daviess County resulted in 6 less applications of pesticides than the traditional system, a savings of approximately $130 per acre. When compared to the traditional preventative spray schedule, the IPM treated apples showed no differences in fruit quality and in orchard diseases and insect infestations. The decreased pesticide use has the potential to reduce applicator exposure, residues on fruit, and the environmental impact of these chemicals. The results of this demonstration were shared with and received an enthusiastic response from growers, Extension personnel, students, consumers, and the news media. The project demonstrated the feasibility of using apple IPM by a Kentucky grower, and it provided students an insight into applied biology.