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- Author or Editor: George Ray McEachern x
I. Chennin Blanc 107-cm bilateral cordon spaced 3.6 × 2.4 m, 1119 vines/ha, 14 spurs with 32 buds/vine. Yields were 8.8 t·ha-1 in the third leaf; 9.7 in the fourth, and 12.8 the 5th year, 1990, at the Jane Terrell Vineyard, Navasota, Tex. II. Cabernet Sauvignon with a two-trunk 122 cm bilateral cordon spaced 3.3 × 1.2 m, 2445 vines/ha with 48 buds/vine. Yields were 9.7 t·ha-1 for 1994 through 1997 at the mechanically harvested Newson Vineyard, Plains, Tex. III. Le Noir with a 91-cm trunk and a two-cane canopy; spaced 3 × 2.1 m, 1536 vines/ha, with 14 buds/vine. Yields were 13.3 t·ha-1 in 1996 and 11.2 in 1997 at Messina Hoff Vineyard, Bryan, Tex. IV. Merlot/110R with a 45° slanting cordon, 30 cm at south to 152 cm at north, spaced 1.5 × 1.5 m, 4308 vines/ha with 10 spurs and 20 buds/vine. Yield of 10.8 t·ha-1 in the third leaf, 1997, at Wolf Vineyard, Valley View, Tex. Four very different canopy systems were successful; the ideal system is yet to be determined.
Summer and fall irrigation treatments increased pecan yield, trunk diameter, and percent kernel over nonirrigated trees. Sticktights and viviparous nuts were reduced by late-season irrigation in a dry year (1984). All irrigation treatments increased pecan size; the most frequently irrigated plots had the largest pecans and least tree water stress as measured by a pressure bomb in 1984. The less water was applied in Sept, and Oct. 1984, the more sticktights resulted. Late-season water stress in all treatments indicated that water was needed just before shuck opening.
Ethephon was trunk injected into the transpiration stream of pecan trees 10 to 21 days before shuck split in an attempt to expedite shuck opening in 1983. Ethephon concentrations were based on the estimated amount of water flowing through the tree per day. At College Station and Hondo, Texas, a 10 ppm injection significantly increased shuck opening. Leaf drop was only 35% at 10 ppm compared to much higher leaf drop in previous research. There was no difference in number of nuts set and the extent of limb dieback between the control trees and those trunk injected with 10 ppm ethephon. At Ft. Stockton and Midkiff, Texas, injections of 10, 20, and 40 ppm increased nut opening and early leaf drop, but reduced fruit set in the following year (1984). There was no limb dieback at these locations. Injections of trees in El Paso failed to cause shuck opening.
Gibberellic acid and fungicide experiments were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to examine their effect on yield, quality and disease control of 'Chenin Blanc' grapes in Southeast Texas. Gibberellic acid applied 7 and 14 days prior to bloom at 2.5 and 5.0 ppm reduced the number of berries per cluster in 1988 and 1989. The 2.5 ppm rate reduced berries and increased yield. The GA treatments also reduced bunch rot at harvest. Benomyl + Manzate fungicide treatments were superior to Nova and control in reducing bunch rot.
Canopy management experiments of hedging and/or leaf pruning, were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to examine their effect on yield, quality and disease control of `Chenin Blanc ' grapes in Southeast Texas. Vines hedged and/or leaf pruned in May reduced bunch rot. In 1988 all three treatments had a significant lower juice pH at harvest than the control. The combination treatment also had a higher yield.