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- Author or Editor: George M. Greene II x
When applied as a dilute spray (at 125 and 250 ppm), BAS 125W effectively reduced shoot extension growth on `York' Imperial (YI) and `Spartan' (S) apple trees but was less effectively on `Delicious' (D). In 1994, lateral shoot growth of YI/M.26 trees (1 to 2 m tall) from 10 May to 7 July was reduced (35 vs. 7 cm) by sprays applied on May 13. The initial surge of growth by vertical shoots was suppressed by the treatments (16 vs. 35 cm), but there was more regrowth (6.5 vs. 0.5 cm). Some leaf injury was seen on YI. The 1995 experiments were conducted on S/M.111 and D/M.111 in an orchard spaced 3.7 m by 7.3 m. On S, lateral shoot length on five dates from 7 June to 20 Sept. was reduced by the sprays (44 vs. 32 cm on 20 Sept.). The initial surge of growth by vertical shoots was suppressed by the treatments (30 vs. 85 cm), but there was more regrowth (34 vs. 4 cm). There were fewer apples that were <25% red and more that were 25% to 40% and 66% to 85% red. On D, lateral shoot length on five dates from 7 June to 20 Sept. was reduced by the sprays (51 vs. 38 cm on 20 Sept.). The growth of vertical shoots was not influenced by the treatments, possibly due to a light fruit load in the tops of the trees. Growers viewing the 1995 plots estimated enhanced income of $933/ha for D and $780/ha for S.
Excessive tree vigor is a significant production problem for the PA apple industry. A series of experiments were conducted from 1994 to 1999, which indicated that Apogee® could effectively reduce vegetative shoot growth. Results from 1994 to 1996 have previously been reported (HortScience 31:598, 32:558). In 1997, 16 treatments composed of four rates (0, 63, 125, and 250 ppm) and four timings (22 May; 4, 11, and 24 June) in various combinations, were applied as dilute handgun sprays. These treatments were applied to sixth leaf `York Imperial' apple trees. Ten peripheral shoots, at a height of 2 m, were tagged and measured on 21 May, 9 and 30 June, 16 July, 12 Aug., and on 10 Oct. Shoots treated with 63, 125, or 250 ppm on 22 May followed by 0, 63, or 125 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June were from 65% to 76% of the length of the controls (25.5 cm). Treated shoots were from 69% to 78% of the length of the controls following sprays with 63 ppm on 22 May followed by 0, 63, or 125 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June. Shoots treated with 125 ppm on 22 May followed by 0 or 63 ppm on 4, 11, or 24 June were from 69% to 73% of the length of the controls. The later applications (11 and 24 June) of 250 ppm gave no growth control but the 22 May treatment gave a 30% reduction in growth. In 1999, dilute handgun sprays of 125, 125, 83, and 83 ppm were made on 22 May and on 4, 11, and 24 June, respectively. Cultivars treated were `Spartan', `Delicious', `York Imperial', `Gala', and `Mutsu'. The length of 10 peripheral shoots at 2 and 3 m were measured on 28 July and on 12 Aug. All cultivars responded and on 12 Aug. treated terminal shoot lengths ranged from 33% to 55% of the controls. With reduced vegetative tree vigor many horticultural factors will be improved. In addition, the severity of shoot fire blight can be reduced and the control of all pests that prosper on young succulent leaves will be easier, especially apple aphids and obliquebanded leafrollers. Major factors to be considered in developing an efficacious Apogee® program appear to be initial tree vigor, length of growing season, and crop load. An initial application at 1 to 3 inches of terminal growth is probably the most critical factor.
The apple cultivar Enterprise is a product of the Purdue–Rutgers–Illinois (PRI) disease-resistant apple breeding program. It has field immunity to apple scab, has a high level of resistance to cedar apple rust and fire blight, and is moderately resistant to apple powdery mildew. This resistance to these diseases makes the production of this cultivar desirable, especially on the popular fire blight-susceptible M.26 rootstock. Compared to many other scab-resistant cultivars, `Enterprise' has performed well in the mid-Atlantic area. However, this cultivar has been reported to be susceptible to low-Ca disorders when grown in New Jersey and Virginia. The mid-Atlantic area is notorious for the production of fruit with high levels of corking and bitter pit. This may be due to factors such as vigorous tree growth and low transpirational flow, which may be weather-related. Circumstantial evidence based on the production of clean `Enterprise' at Biglerville, Pa., where moderately high rates of CaCl2 have been applied in cover sprays, indicate that this disorder may be a Ca deficiency symptom. A replicated trial of many scab-resistant cultivars was established in 1990, 1991, and 1992. Due to the common incidence of low-Ca disorders, CaCl2 has been added to the cover spray program that is applied for insect control. Low-Ca disorders have never been seen in fruit produced at Biglerville, and the cover spray program applied 67 and 73 kg·ha–1 of CaCl2 (77% to 80% CaCl2, flake) in 1993 and 1994, respectively.
An inexpensive, versatile, and simple recirculating controlled atmosphere storage system was designed, constructed and tested. It is demonstrated that this controlled atmosphere storage system has minimal variation in O2 and CO2 composition. In addition, the system allows controlled atmosphere research to be conducted in conventional storages that are otherwise unsuited for this type of research.
The Mid-Atlantic region consists of the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and New Jersey, and produces about as many apples as New York or Michigan. The climate in this region in the summer often has warm days and relatively warm nights. Light intensity can often be reduced by clouds from tropical air masses, and this is usually accompanied with high relative humidity. Most orchards are not irrigated, and rainfall can varies widely. The predominant cultivars are `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Rome', and `York Imperial'. With these cultivars and this set of climatic conditions, excessive vegetative growth and fluctuating return bloom are common problems. This climate and apple variety assortment are markedly different from more northerly apple production regions in the U.S. The need for an effective growth-control chemical has been obvious for years. The development of BAS-125 appears to have made this a possibility and has caused much interest among pomologists and growers that are aware of this chemical. Research was conducted from 1994 to 1995 on `York Imperial', `Delicious', and `Spartan', and was reported in HortScience (31:191). Research in 1996 dealt with `Law Rome' and `Golden Delicious'. On `Law Rome', treated shoots were ≈24 cm in length, while untreated shoots were 38 cm in length. On `Golden Delicious' this compound controlled shoots to ≈29 cm in length, while untreated shoots had about 39 cm of total shoots growth. BAS-125 can effectively reduce shoot growth, which will improve the light regime in mid-Atlantic apple tree canopies. This should result in savings in pruning, increased fruit quality, and increased cropping levels due to enhanced fruit bud production.
In both experiments. 20-apple samples from 6 commercial orchards were harvested and stored in 208 liter containers at 0C for 4, 6, and 8 months. Additional samples were removed from CA and held at 0C for 14 days before evaluation. Gas composition was measured and controlled 6 times per day using automatic control equipment.
In the first experiment, samples were stored at constant 0.0% CO2 and one of three O2 regimes (constant 2.0%. 0.5 rising to 3.5%. or 3.5% falling to 0.5% O2). Apples stored at 3.5% falling to 0.5% O2 during the storage period were softer than apples held at constant 2.0% or those held at 0.5% rising to 3.5% O2 during the storage period. Variable O2 concentrations did not influence weight loss during storage and insignificant scald, flesh browning, core browning, rot, and low 02 injury were observed.
In the second experiment, samples were stored at constant 2.0% O2 and one of three CO2 regimes (constant 0%, constant 5%. or 0% rising to 6% CO2). Constant 5% or rising CO2 conditions did not significantly influence flesh softening or weight loss during storage. Negligible CO2 injury was observed.
In many years, apples grown in the mid-Atlantic region fail to exhibit a high percentage of the dark red color that buyers and consumers desire. In 1996, we initiated studies to examine the use of a metalized silver low-density polyethylene reflective groundcover (RGC) to improve red color on several apple cultivars under several training systems. A RGC placed in the orchard drive middle of 8-year-old `Delicious' apple trees trained to a “Y” trellis increased the percent surface red color and resulted in darker, more red-colored apples at harvest. A RGC increased surface red color on `Empire' apples on a “Y” trellis, but on central leader-trained semi-dwarf and standard size `Empire' showed no effects on color. Central leader-trained `Fuji'/EMLA.7 apples with a RGC had more red color than untreated fruit at harvest. In 1997, RGC placed under the canopy of 3-year-old `Fuji' trees trained to a “Y” trellis increased the full sunlight on the underside of the canopy by 28%. Ambient air temperatures within the RGC illuminated canopy averaged 2.1 °C higher than the non-RGC canopy. The level of percent full sunlight was increased within the canopy of well-pruned 32-year-old `Miller Spur Delicious' apple trees 4- to 8-fold with RGC placed in the row middle or under the canopy in a commercial orchard in 1998. Position of the RGC to the canopy affected fruit red color response differently between the lower and upper part of the canopy. Bins of fruit graded with a commercial color sorter showed no difference in fruit color; however, there was a strong trend toward increased red color where the RGC material was applied.
Water stress in mature `Redhaven' / Lovell peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees was imposed, during the 1988 growing season. Trickle irrigation was reduced from 100% to 25% of a calculated weekly evaporation amount on 22 June, 11 July, and 8 and 27 Aug. Trees were isolated from rainfall by tents under the canopy and from horizontal water movement between root systems on 4 sides to a depth of 0.5 m by a water-proof barrier. Canopy to air temperature differentials monitored throughout the growing season were developed into 3 stress indexes: crop water stress index (CWSI); cumulative crop water stress index (CCWSI); and postharvest cumulative crop water stress index (PCCWSI). CWSI values varied from 0 to 0.6, while both CCWSI and PCCWSI increased through late Sept. Mean PCCWSI of the 22 June 25% treatment increased at a greater rate than the other treatments. Significant linear regressions were found with some of the indexes and net photosynthesis or stomatal conductance; however, the r-square values were low. In general, no linear relationships were found between either CCWSI of PCCWSI and the Index of Injury for cold hardiness.
This study quantifies the discounts and premiums associated with various quality factors for processing apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Discounts and premiums were estimated using a hedonic price model and quality data from a total of 137 samples representing three processing apple cultivars (45 `York Imperial', 43 `Rome Beauty', and 49 `Golden Delicious'). Price discounts in the sample were statistically significant for fruit size, bruising, bitter pit, decay, misshapen apples, and internal breakdown. Commonly cited defects, such as insect damage and apple scab, did not cause significant price discounts.