Gene E. Lester
Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain compounds with important human health promoting effects. Whether fruits and vegetables grown via organic versus conventional production systems are superior in taste and nutrition, at present, is difficult to say with complete certainty. To ascertain possible quality differences and develop a definitive data base, direct comparative studies of organic vs. conventional produce requires following rigorous guidelines which includes 1) appropriate study approaches (retail market vs. farm vs. research center studies), and 2) standardized preharvest production site, harvest procedural, postharvest handling, and analytical methodology constraints.
Gene E. Lester
Analyses of sensory attributes from 19 netted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars and breeding lines showed that flavor, (r= .92) had the highest significant correlation with overall fruit acceptance, while appearance (r = .72), color (r = .71) and internal color (r = .68) were secondary, and texture (r = .41) was not significantly correlated with overall fruit acceptance. Chemical attributes of soluble solids, fresh weight, dry weight, beta-carotene, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and total sugars shoved that total sugars per g fresh weight had the highest significant correlation (r = .68) with overall fruit acceptance. Total sugars per g fresh weight was significantly correlated with flavor (r = .65). Although, sugars were correlated with flavor, sugars when compared to flavor were less important in determination of overall muskmelon fruit preference.
Gene E. Lester
Plasma membrane (PM) from hypodermal-mesocarp tissues of muskmelon fruits (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) were compared to the electrolyte leakage changes of the same tissue during maturation and storage at 4 or 24C. During fruit maturity and storage, leakage of the hypodermal-mesocarp tissue increased, which is coincident with increased total sterol: total phospholipid ratios and increased phospholipid fatty acid saturation index of the PM. ATPase activity, a marker for the PM, indicated that the PM increased in buoyant density from 1.13 g.cm-3 to 1.14 g.cm-3 during maturity and ATPase activity peaked with fruit maturation. ATPase activity decreased with 10 days postharvest storage and was less at 24C vs. 4C, which was coincident with increased hypodermal-mesocarp electrolyte leakage. Biochemical changes within the sterol and phospholipid matrix of the PM are suggested to contain the processes capable of altering fruit membrane permeability and subsequent muskmelon fruit storage life.
Gene E. Lester
Donald J. Makus* and Gene E. Lester
Field-grown mustard greens, Brassica juncea, were used to validate several observations of a greenhouse study which reported nutrient changes in mustard greens grown, in part, under ambient and reduced light. The cultivar Florida Broadleaf was transplanted into a Hildago sandy clay soil near Weslaco, Texas (26° 08' Lat.) on 6 Nov 2003. Greens were fertigated with 30 kg·ha-1 of N on 1 Dec. Plants 14 days before harvest were grown under the following four light regimes: (1) continuous ambient light; (2) 7 days of 50% shade then 7 days of ambient light; (3) 7 days of ambient light then 7 days of 50% shade; and (4) 14 days of 50% shade. Cumulative solar light was 28.9 and 19.4 kW/m2 during the first and second 7 days, respectively. Measured cumulative light, as PPFD, for treatments 1-4 were 108, 67, 78, and 44 mm·m-2·s-1, respectively. Plants were harvested at 0800, 1100, and 1400 h on 2 Jan. 2004. Shade during the last 7 days generally evoked the greatest responses. Increased shade duration did not significantly effect the agronomic performance, but did increase leaf total carotenoids, chlorophylls, water content, and reduced total ascorbate levels. As time of daylight progressed, sample plant weight and average leaf weight decreased in shaded plants only. Free ascorbic acid, chlorophyll a:b ratio, and the chlorophyll to carotenoid ratio decreased with time of day. Cumulative sunlight, as PPFD, was significantly correlated with total ascorbate (fresh weight basis), chlorophyll a:b ratio, and plant weight (P < 0.06) and negatively correlated with chlorophylls and total carotenoids (dry weight basis). Thus, cloudy weather prior to harvest can reduce leaf Vitamin C and alter leaf greenness
Gene E. Lester and Cindy B.S. Tong
Gene E. Lester and Michael A. Grusak
Commercially grown honeydew fruit (Cucumis melo Inodorus group) and netted cantaloupe fruit (C. melo Reticulatus group) in low-humidity regions of the U.S. are typically field packed, eliminating the possibility for postharvest chelated-calcium dip treatments to extend fruit shelf life. In this study, calcium treatments were applied to orange-flesh honeydew fruit commercially grown in 2001 and 2002 in Sacramento Valley, Calif. and orange-fleshed netted cantaloupe fruit commercially grown in 2002 in Imperial Valley, Calif., and Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Aminoacid-chelated calcium and mannitol-complexed calcium compounds were applied to field-grown plants at the rate of 2.3 L·ha-1 (1 qt/acre) at 0, 1, 2, or 4 total applications during growth of honeydew and cantaloupe fruit. Applications were A) at female flowering, B) within 15 days (cantaloupe) or 20 days (honeydew) after flowering, C) within 30 days (cantaloupe) or 40 days (honeydew) after female flowering, and/or D) within 3 to 5 days before abscission. One application equaled (A) or (D), two applications equaled (A + B) or (C + D) and four applications equaled (A + B + C + D). Evaluations of fully abscised fruit were exterior and interior firmness, marketability, calcium concentrations, interior soluble solids concentration (sugars), and consumer preference (taste) following harvest and up to 3 weeks commercial/retail storage. Cantaloupe fruit at both locations did not appear to benefit from preharvest plant applications of calcium when compared to fruit from plants treated with water. Honeydew fruit, however, did and the benefit was observed both years. Honeydew fruit that received four preharvest plant applications of calcium, regardless of source, were generally superior in firmness, marketability, and had a higher calcium concentration than fruit from plants receiving water or one or two applications of calcium. Fruit sugars and taste were not affected by preharvest plant applications of calcium.
D. Mark Hodges and Gene E. Lester
The consumption of netted muskmelons (Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus group) has raised health concerns due to pathogenic bacteria attaching to sites on the netted rind inaccessible to sanitation. The purpose of this study was to compare 1) the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant capacity between representative cultivars of netted muskmelon and both green- and orange-fleshed honey dew muskmelons during storage for 17 days and 2) levels of non-nutrient phytochemicals between these genotypes in consideration of ultimately substituting netted orange-fleshed with non-netted orange-fleshed muskmelon. Netted muskmelon (`Cruiser'), green-fleshed (`Honey Brew'), and orange-fleshed (`Orange Dew') muskmelons were harvested in Texas at the beginning (21 May) and at the end (11 June) of the production season in 2004. Fruit were analyzed immediately (day 0) or stored simulating retail conditions for 7 or 14 days at 7 °C and 95% ± 2% relative humidity plus 3 days at 21 °C. Both `Orange Dew' and `Honey Brew' non-netted cultivars evinced similar and less lipid peroxidation, and hence postharvest senescence, during the 17-day storage period than the netted muskmelon `Cruiser'. In comparison with `Cruiser', `Orange Dew' generally exhibited higher concentrations of ß-carotene and phenolics and, with few exceptions, higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (AsPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Higher AsPX and SOD activities in both `Orange Dew' and `Honey Brew' appear to confer a greater resistance to lipid peroxidation in these muskmelon genotypes than to the netted `Cruiser'. `Orange Dew' also appears to be a healthier food choice not only due to its lack of a netted rind which could potentially harbour human illness-related pathogens, but also that it is superior to both `Cruiser' and `Honey Brew' in overall beta-carotene and phenolic levels.
Bruce D. Whitaker and Gene E. Lester
Increases in phospholipase D [PLD (EC 184.108.40.206)] and lipoxygenase [LOX (EC 220.127.116.11)] activities are thought to play a critical role in senescence of mesocarp tissues in netted and nonnetted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruits. We have cloned and characterized two full-length cDNAs, CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1, encoding PLDα and LOX proteins in honeydew melon (C. melo Inodorus Group cv. Honey Brew). Relative levels of expression of the corresponding genes were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in developing and mature fruit mesocarp tissues [20-60 d after pollination (DAP)], as well as in roots, leaves, and stems from 4-week-old and flowers from 6- to 7-week-old plants. The coding regions of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 cDNAs are, respectively, 2427 and 2634 nucleotides long, encoding proteins 808 and 877 amino acids in length. CmPLDα1 is very similar to PLDα genes from castor bean (Ricinis communis L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (77% nucleotide identity), and is the first PLD gene cloned from a cucurbit species. CmLOX1 has 94% nucleotide identity to a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) LOX gene expressed in roots and 80% identity to cucumber cotyledon lipid body LOX. In general, transcript of CmPLDα1 was much more abundant than that of CmLOX1, but relative levels of transcript in the various organs and tissues were similar for the two genes. Expression was highest in roots, flowers, and fruit mesocarp tissues. CmPLDα1 expression in fruit was essentially constitutive throughout development, although maximum levels occurred at 50 and 55 DAP, respectively, in middle and hypodermal mesocarp. CmLOX1 expression was generally higher in middle than in hypodermal mesocarp with maximum transcript levels occurring at 55 and 50 DAP, respectively. Overall, the patterns of expression of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 are consistent with a model in which their encoded enzymes act in tandem to promote or accelerate senescence in fruit mesocarp tissues.