The effect of two fruit maturity stages on the quality attributes of four fresh fig cultivars was examined, including consumer acceptance and antioxidant capacity. Fig quality attributes such as weight, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), SSC:TA, firmness, antioxidant capacity, and consumer acceptance varied by cultivar. Fig cultivars harvested at the advanced maturity stage (“tree ripe”) had lower TA and firmness but higher weight, SSC, and SSC:TA than figs harvested at “commercial maturity.” Fig maturity did not affect antioxidant capacity, but tree ripe figs had higher consumer acceptance than commercial maturity figs. SSC was more highly correlated with consumer acceptance than TA or SSC:TA, but other factors may also be important in controlling this relationship. Cultivars with high SSC and firmness, at a maturity stage high enough to tolerate harvesting and postharvest handling, should be selected to develop the fresh fig industry. Because fig firmness is a concern, changes to packaging should be evaluated to protect the flavor of advanced maturity figs during postharvest handling.
Carlos H. Crisosto, Vanessa Bremer, Louise Ferguson and Gayle M. Crisosto
Carlos H. Crisosto, Gayle M. Crisosto, Gemma Echeverria and Jaume Puy
Cultivar segregation according to their organoleptic perception was attempted by using trained panel data evaluated by principal component analysis in four sources of 24 peach and 27 nectarine cultivars as a part of our program to develop minimum quality indexes. Source significantly affected cultivar ripe soluble solids concentration (RSSC) and ripe titratable acidity (RTA), but it did not significantly affect sensory perception of flavor, sourness and aroma by the trained panel. On two out of 51 cultivars tested, source played a role on sweetness perception. In all of these cases, when source fell out of the proposed cultivar organoleptic group it could be explained by fruit being harvested outside the commercial physiological maturity (immature or overmature). The perception of the four sensory attributes was reduced to three principal components that explain 92% for peach and 94% for nectarine of the variation in the sensory characteristics of the cultivars tested. Season did not affect significantly the classification of three cultivars that were evaluated during these two seasons. By plotting organoleptic characteristics in PC1 and PC2 (∼76%), cultivars were segregated into groups (balanced, robust, sweet, peach or nectarine aroma, and/or peach or nectarine flavor) with similar sensory attributes; nectarines were classified into five groups and peaches into four groups. Based on this information, we recommend that cultivars should be clustered in organoleptic groups and a development of a minimum quality index should be attempted within each organoleptic group rather than proposing a generic minimum quality index based on RSSC. This organoleptic cultivar classification will help to match ethnic preferences and enhance the current promotion and marketing programs.
Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Gayle M. Crisosto, John Labavich and David Garner
During the past two seasons, the relationship between fruit ripening “ON” or “OFF” the tree and internal breakdown incidence was studied with `Elegant Lady' and `O'Henry' peach cultivars. Internal breakdown (IB) visual symptom development was delayed in fruit harvested at different physiological maturities and exposed to different “OFF” the tree pre-ripening treatments. As a follow up, different pre-ripening treatments (controlled delayed cooling) were tested for several peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars susceptible to IB. This pre-ripening treatment delayed flesh browning, mealiness, and off-fl avor development after a simulated shipment and retailer handling period for `Flavorcrest', `Elegant Lady', `O'Henry', `Parade', `Fairtime', `Carnival', `Prima Gattie', `Last Chance', `Autumn Gem', `Autumn Lady', and `Autumn Rose' peaches; `Summer Grand' and `September Red' nectarines; and `Fortune' plum. However, decay development may be a problem. Delayed cooling at 20°C must be carried out with fruit protected with fungicide and wax for the shortest possible, but still effective, length of time to limit IB. The temperature and the length of this pre-ripening treatment, and the presence or absence of ethylene during the delayed cooling is cultivar dependent. Thus, specific pre-ripening conditions must be developed for each cultivar.
Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Juvenal G. Luza and Gayle M. Crisosto
The effect of irrigation management strategies on the quality and storage performance of `O'Henry' peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was studied for two seasons. The deficit irrigation treatment induced a higher fruit soluble solids concentration and lower fruit weight. The excess irrigation treatment, compared to the optimum treatment, increased the rate of fruit water loss without altering fruit quality and storage performance. Scanning electron microscope observations indicated a higher density of trichomes on fruit from the deficit and optimum irrigation treatments than from the excess irrigation treatment. Light microscopy studies indicated that fruit from deficit and optimum irrigation had a continuous and much thicker cuticle than fruit from the excess irrigation treatment. These differences in exodermis structure may explain the high percentage of water loss from fruit from the excess irrigation treatment compared to the deficit and optimum irrigation treatments.
Carlos H. Crisosto, David Garner, Gayle M. Crisosto, Steve Southwick and Mark A. Ritenour
During the past 5 years, we have investigated the relationship between cherry skin color stages (light red, 50% bright red, 100% bright, and dark red) measured at harvest and harvest/shipping quality for `Brooks', `Tulare', and `King' cultivars. This relationship was studied with fruit grown in different geographic locations within the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). SSC increased, but titratable acidity levels did not change as cherries matured to the dark skin color. The perception of sweetness, sourness, and cherry flavor by a trained taste panel was related to the different cherry skin color stages. Dark red color developed on cherries picked at earlier color stages after simulated shipment. Pitting and stem browning were the main market life limitations. Pitting, stem browning, and decay were higher on cherries picked at the dark and 100% bright red colors than cherries picked at earlier stages.
Carlos H. Crisosto, David Garner, Gayle M. Crisosto, Steve Sibbett and Kevin R. Day
Brown discoloration of the core, carpels, and flesh areas of `Ya Li' and `Seuri' Chinese pears [Pyrus bretschmeideri (Rehd.)] depended on harvest date. Fruit harvested no later than 180 days after full bloom (3000 degree days) did not develop the disorder. Browning of the core and flesh tissues increased when cooling was delayed, but was not influenced by subsequent storage temperatures of 0,10, or 20C. In both cultivars, the onset of internal browning was evident after storage in fruit that had been harvested when skin color had changed from green to light green-yellow. Thus, skin color can be used to determine harvest date to avoid internal browninincidence during storage of `Ya Li' and `Seuri' Chinese pears.