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  • Author or Editor: Gary Kling* x
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The authors present a case study of the progress and development of UIPLANTS from its inception to marketing. Topics such as determining the objectives of the software program, choosing equipment, authoring software, hardware, personnel, and funding will be addressed. The authors will lead the audience through the path of development and show how the product being produced evolves as each of the above factors change in time. Included in the presentation will be issues relating to copyrights, patents, publishers, and royalties. The effects of continuous evaluation and testing of software development will be demonstrated. Also discussed will be changes in software development as influenced by each of these factors. The presentation will include future development of UIPLANTS as it is being modified to meet industry needs.

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UIPLANTS is a program developed under Microsoft Windows to help students in woody plant materials courses. Its many options include an encyclopedic format that displays 256-color high-resolution images of plant identification characteristics and ornamental features coupled with text, side by side image comparisons, “book markers” to return to selected screens, and a slide show that runs a display of images in a user-defined format. The system is being used to study how students learn information presented to them through computers and which program features are most effective in improving plant knowledge. Through computer logging of all student activity within the program and surveys given to the test groups, some basic usage patterns were derived. Students using the program with no incentive tended to use the program in a more comprehensive manner, switching back and forth between the slide show and encyclopedic entries with equal time spent in each. The comparison and “bookmark” features were used but less frequently. Half of the students, given an extra credit incentive based on time, followed this same usage pattern, but the other half simply used the slide show with minimal student–computer interaction.

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Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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An integrated teaching system was developed to enhance retention of course material covered in a woody landscape plants identification course. A Toolbook-based software program which incorporates high quality digital images and text in an interactive computer environment was tested on groups of randomly selected plant materials students. The objectives of the project were to: increase use of visual study techniques, facilitate individualized instruction, increase student access to information that is often not available in the classroom or from standard references, and enhance retention of course material. In alternating 4-week periods of time, one half of the students in the class had password access to the software. All students continued to receive traditional lecture and laboratory presentations of the material. This study was conducted with a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. Students' written test scores, performance on identification exams and student opinions were compared between the two groups.

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Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud, is very Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud, is very susceptible to infection by Verticillium Wilt caused bysusceotible to infection by Verticillium Wilt caused by the common soil-borne fungi Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. Little is known about the inoculum levels, the time required for natural infection to occur and how fast the pathogen travels inside the host species. One-year-old Cercis canadensis seedlings were planted in 7.6 liter (2-gallon) containers with a 1:1:2 soil/sand/perlite mix inoculated with five levels (0, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 microsclerotia/g soil) of V. dahliae prior to planting. At the end of the first growing season, half of the plants were removed from the containers, surface sterilized, dissected and root sections plated out on a Verticillium selective media. The remaining plants were grown for a second season. Infection first occurred in plants which received 100, 500 or 1000 ms/g at the end of the first season. The infection had spread at least 5 cm during the first growing season.

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Cornus sericea L. rooted cuttings were held in cold storage for 60 days and then transferred to a growth chamber in hydroponic culture. Roots and shoot tips were sampled during storage and through resumption of vegetative growth. Samples were analyzed for abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. Budbreak was associated with increasing levels of the cytokinins and IAA, and decreasing levels of sucrose and starch in the shoot tips. Regeneration of new roots was preceded by an increase in the cytokinins and IAA, and a decrease in ABA in roots. Root sucrose increased nearly two times 1 week after budbreak and starch content generally decreased throughout the experiment. The results agree, in general, with previous reports indicating decreasing levels of ABA and increasing levels of cytokinins to be associated with root regeneration and budbreak. They also indicate that, of the four carbohydrates studied, sucrose levels changed most dramatically during the root regeneration and budbreak processes.

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Abstract

The genus Quercus comprises a major group of woody landscape plants that differ widely in root system morphology and recovery from transplanting (2, 6). Quercus alba has a coarse root system and is more difficult to transplant than the more fibrous-rooted Quercus rubra (2).

Open Access

Abstract

Root systems of two Magnolia taxa were treated with spray applications of auxins to determine their effects on root regeneration. Spray application of 500 ppm of IBA doubled the number of adventitious roots regenerated from the cut ends of main roots in 1-year-old cuttings of Magnolia × Soulangiana (Soul.-Bod). Higher concentrations of IBA inhibited root regeneration. Auxin applications did not increase the number of lateral or branch roots. Root systems of Magnolia × Soulangiana were treated with spray applications of ethanol to determine effect of IBA on root regeneration. A significant negative linear relationship was found between ethanol concentration and the number of adventitious roots initiated at the cut ends of main roots. Ethanol concentrations of 12.5% to 70% had no effect on the number of lateral roots. Root regeneration of Magnolia × ‘Betty’ was not stimulated with soil drench applications of 250 to 1000 ppm IBA. IBA and NAA concentrations of 1000 to 4000 ppm were inhibitory. Chemical names used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

Open Access

Despite consumer interest in biocontainers, their use in commercial greenhouse production remains limited. Previous research indicates that a perceived incompatibility of biocontainers with current production systems may be a barrier to their widespread adoption. This article investigates two potential areas of concern for growers looking to adopt biocontainers as part of their production process: 1) the ability of biocontainers to withstand the rigors of a semimechanized commercial production process, and 2) biocontainer performance under three different irrigation methods (i.e., hand, ebb-and-flood, and drip irrigation). In the two studies presented here, ‘Florida Sun Jade’ coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides) was evaluated to match measures of container resiliency with plant performance. Results indicate that plants grown in biocontainers were of equal size and quality as those grown in conventional plastic containers within each of the irrigation types tested. However, some biocontainers were more prone to damage during crop production, handling, and shipping.

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Growers, nurseries, landscape contractors and installers, and those responsible for maintenance have observed a trend that trees are too deep within the root ball. This study addresses the relationship between planting depth and its effect on tree survival, root growth, root architecture, and caliper growth. The experiment was initiated to determine the effect of planting depth on nursery-grown trees. Three-year-old, 2.1–2.7 m, bare-root liners of Acer platanoides `Emerald Lustre', Fraxinus americana `Autumn Purple', Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore', and Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis `Shade Master' were planted in April 2004 in a completely randomized design with 20 replications per treatment per species. The trees were selected so that the distance between the graft union and the trunk flare was consistent. Trees were planted with the graft union 15.2 cm below the soil surface, or with the base of the graft union at the finished grade or with the trunk flare at the finished grade. The trees were grown in a nursery field setting with minimal supplemental watering. There were no differences in stem caliper growth at the end of two seasons in any of the four species. Root dry mass, stem elongation, and rooting structure were determined on a representative sample of trees while others were planted into the landscape for a long-term study of the effects of the original planting depth on landscape performance.

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