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  • Author or Editor: G.W. Carver x
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A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the ability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), cv. `Centennial', `Rojo Blanco', `Georgia Jet' and `TI-82-155', fibrous roots to accumulate N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Sweetpotato plants were grown in a fritted clay medium and harvested 42 and 82 days after planting. Fibrous roots comprised 22 to 28.1% and 3.9 to 11.1% of the plant dry weight at 42 and 82 days after planting, respectively. There was no difference in the average root length/cm depth of soil among the four sweetpotato cultivars at day 42. While there was no difference in average root length among `Centennial', `Rojo Blanco' and `TI-82-155', these cultivars were significantly different from `Georgia Jet' at day 82. For the four cultivars, there were no significant differences in N, P, K, Mg and Ca Uptake at day 42, but each cultivar absorbed significantly more of each element 82 days after planting. `Georgia Jet' absorbed significantly more of the nutrients measured than the other cultivars, resulting in the highest dry matter yield. The data show that the efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients by sweetpotato are related to the amount of fibrous roots present.

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Hot pepper (Capsicum annum) is gaining popularity as a food flavor additive. A study was initiated to determine the fruiting characteristics of two hot pepper cultivars; `Scotch Bonnet' and `Brown Lue'. After evaluating 100 fruits of each cultivar, it was found that `Scotch Bonnet' fruits had 34% more seeds and these seeds weighed 9% more than `Brown Lue'. Although `Brown Lue' had longer fruits (3.89 vs 3.33 cm) than `Scotch Bonnet', this difference was not significant. In addition, `Scotch Bonnet' had greater fruit circumference and circumference to length ratio than `Brown Lue'. When fruits were compared for fresh and dried weights, there was no significant difference. However, `Brown Lue' had a significantly higher percent dry matter. Based on dry matter, if fruits were to be produced for crushed peppers, it might be more advantageous to use `Brown Lue'.

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Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) has become a pervasive weed in the southeast US. It has been receiving much attention recently and a study was initiated to evaluate the plant as an alternative food and feed source. Kudzu vines were sectioned into; 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm and analysed for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ash and crude protein content. Leaf ash content of kudzu increased while stem ash content decreased as the vine was sampled from the growing tip. Stem NDF increased from 44.4% at the 0-25 cm section to 57.83% at the 75-100 cm section of the vine, while leaf NDF declined from 52.23 to 39.01% for the same sections. The trend was reversed for ADF in the kudzu leaf and stem. Crude protein content of kudzu ranged from 18.45% at the 0-25 cm section for leaves to 7.42% for stem sections at 75-100 cm. The high crude protein content of kudzu as well as its abundance in the Southeast makes it a good feed source and a potential food source. However, further studies are needed to determine the vitamin content and digestion coefficient to ascertain its suitability as a food and feed source.

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Growing crops using poor quality Later can result in poor germination and seedling survival. Low germination rates of various crops in the Bahamas result from the high salinity of the irrigation water. This study investigated the effects of using varying levels of sea water on germination and imbibition rates of lupine (Lupinus albus) seeds. In separate completely randomized design experiments, 100 lupine seeds were placed in conical flasks and either de ionized distilled water (DDW). 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% sea water added to each flask. Seeds ware removed from each flask every hour for the first 8 hours and every six hours thereafter for 48 hours. lmbibition rate is expressed as mg/ghr using the formula: (original weight - weight at y hr) × 1000)/(original weight x y hrs). Germination of seeds was measured beginning 3 days after imbibition began and the experiments were terminated after 10 days. The highest rate of imbibition (178.8 mg/g/hr) was recorded for lupine seeds placed in 25% sea water and the lowest of 152.8 mg/g/hr for seeds placed in 100% sea water after two hours. Germination ranged between 49% (100% sea water) to 94.7% for seeds placed in DDW. It would appear that if lupine seeds were primed with 25% sea water (approximately 150 ppm, NaCI) there would be no significant reduction in either the imbibition or the germination rates.

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A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the uptake, accumulation and percent recovery of N, P, K, Ca and Mg by sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cv `TI-155', `Centennial', `Georgia Jet' and `Rojo Blanco'. These cultivars were grown in a fritted clay medium and harvested after 42 and 32 days. There were no significant difference in total elements uptake among the cultivars at 42 days. However, Georgia Jet accumulated more P and K than TI-155 and had higher levels of K than Rojo Blanco at day 82. Total accumulation of elements increased significantly from 42 to 82 days. Leaves accounted for most of the plant N at both harvest periods. Storage roots contained significantly more K than leaves, vines or fibrous roots. Percent N, P and K uptake was significantly lower at 42 than at 82 days. Cultivars also had no significant difference in percent uptake at day 42. However, at day 82, Georgia Jet showed a significantly higher P and K percent recovery than Rojo Blanco.

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In a greenhouse study, continuous use of the same plant nutrient solution for hydroponic culture of sweetpotato was investigated to determine the effect on storage root yield, plant growth and nutrient solution composition. Plants were grown for 120 days under continuous flow from a 30.4-liter reservoir. Plant growth was compared when nutrient solution was changed at 14-day intervals and when nutrient solution was not changed but nutrients replenished through addition of a Modified half-Hoagland's (N:K=1:2.4) plant nutrient solution when volume in reservoir was -10 liters. Storage root yield was significantly decreased (181 vs 310.3 g/plant) and foliar biomass was significantly increased (372.4 vs 2% g/plant) when nutrient solution was not changed Nitrate and phosphate concentrations decreased in the plant nutrient over the duration of the experiment while sulfate and chloride concentrations increased. Salinity and electrical conductivity were monitored at 2-day intervals and increased with duration of the crop. Increased foliage production may have been the result of nitrogen replenishment going largely for foliage rather than storage root production. It may be that continuous use of the same plant nutrient solution as practiced in this study, resulted in lowered phosphate and nitrate concentrations that limited uptake of these ions by sweetpotato plants, thus reducing yield

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The effect of inoculation of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L. (Lam.)) cultivar “TI-82-155” with Azospirillum brasilense was investigated in an observational greenhouse experiment. Sweetpotato was grown in a closed hydroponic system and plant nutrients were supplied in a Modified Half-strength Hoagland's solution (N:K 1:2.4) using a nutrient film technique system (NFT). Plants were either supplied with mineral nitrogen (160 ppm) and noninoculated or were supplied mineral nitrogen (160 ppm) and inoculated. Storage root dry matter was higher under inoculation with A. brasilense. Inoculation also increased the percent total nitrogen in the shoot, leaves, and fibrous root. There was a significant difference in fresh fibrous root weight for the inoculated (262.5 g) over the noninoculated (177.1 g) treatments. Mineral nitrogen supplied in the PNS was not limiting because dry matter for plants inoculated with A. brasilense was not significantly higher than for the noninoculated control.

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The effect of periodic removal of peanut foliage for use as a green vegetable on final foliage and nut production was evaluated in a field experiment in the summer of 1992. Georgia Red peanut cultivar was grown in Norfolk sandy loam soil in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of removing peanut foliage at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, starting six weeks after planting, and an untreated check. Fresh foliage yield declined an average of 30% while dry weight declined 34% when harvested at 2 and 4 weeks. Nut yield declined 33% when harvested at 2 and 4 weeks but yield decreased only 10% when harvested at 6 weeks. Peanut greens are highly nutritious especially as a rich source of vitamin C and protein. For good balance between foliage and nut production, it appears that harvest intervals should be after four weeks.

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A study was conducted to assess the effects of gypsum on the early growth and storage root yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cvs `Jewel', `Goergia Jet' and `TI-155'. Three rates of gypsum were applied (1.03, 2.06 and 3.09 tons/acre). These represented half, recommended and 1.5 recommended levels. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement of treatment. Leaf area, total dry matter, leaf dry matter and stat-age root weight were recorded at 30-day intervals. Plants receiving half the recommended levels of gypsum produced the highest total storage root dry matter (0.306 t/a) and the highest leaf dry matter (0.116 t/a). Although a positive relationship exists between leaf dry matter and storage root yield between 90 and 120 days, there was no such relationship between those parameters either at 30 and 60 days or 60 and 90 days after transplanting.

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The effects of light intensity on three sweetpotato cultivars [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were evaluated in growth chambers, as part of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program for long duration space missions. Vine cuttings of `TI-155', `GA Jet', and TUJ1 were grown using nutrient film technique (NFT) in a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio in channels (0.15×0.15×1.2 m). Plants were exposed to irradiance levels of 360 or 720 umols m-2s-1 with an 18/6 photoperiod in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Temperature was set at 28:22 lightdark and RH was 70%. Differences in plant response to were more related to cultivars than the effect of light intensity. Storage root number (8) fresh, (786 g/plant) and dry weights (139 g/plant) were highest for `TI-155' while foliage fresh and dry weights were highest for `TUJ1' when averaged across light levels. TI-155' (921 g/plant) and `GA Jet' (538 g/plant) produced greater yields at higher irradiance. `TUJ1' produced a higher yield (438 g/plant at the lower intensity compared to 219 (g/plant) at the higher intensity, suggesting this cultivar could produce storage roots in similar conditions in a CELSS.

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