Phytotoxicity associated with application of 0.28 kg·ha−1 a.i. of the 4E formulation of fluazifop-butyl to Rhododendron ‘Hino-crimson’ was characterized by plant response similar to the response to chemical pinching. Flowering the following spring increased with fluazifop-butyl treatment. In a separate study, application of 1E PP005 (a formulation containing only the active isomer fluazifop-butyl) produced effects similar to the 4E formulation at one-half the rate (0.14 kg·ha−1). Chemical name used: butyl (±)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-butyl).
Several experiments were conducted to determine release rates of five oxadiazon-coated fertilizers. Five fertilizers and 4-mm glass beads (nonabsorbent control) were coated with 14C-oxadiazon + formulated oxadiazon, then placed in a separatory funnel and leached with 20 ml of water for 14 days. 14C-oxadiazon was quantified by use of liquid scintillation spectrometry. For glass beads, Nutricote, Meister, and Osmocote, 70% to 80% of the 14C-oxadiazon was recovered in the first two leaching events. Oxadiazon leached from Polyon was 47% during the first two events and remaining oxadiazon was slowly released over the next 12 leaching events. 14C-oxadiazon from the other fertilizers over the last 12 days of leaching was less than that recovered from Polyon. Evaluation of the total surface area of a 50-g sample revealed Polyon had the greatest total surface area of the five fertilizers. Scanning electron micrographs before and after leachingindicated potential erosion of the Polyon surface compared to little or no change in the surfaces of the other fertilizers.
Effects of combining labeled rates of halosulfuron (Sandea) and s-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) were evaluated as a preemergence (PRE) application in a randomized complete block designed experiment at the Wiregrass Experiment Station in southeastern Alabama. Treatments were assigned in a factorial arrangement of four levels of halosulfuron (0.0, 0.009, 0.018, and 0.036 lbs. a.i./acre) and six levels of s-metolachlor (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 lbs. a.i/acre). The purpose of the study was to ascertain possible synergistic effects from combining these two herbicides to control nutsedge at a possible lower cost. Two repetitions were completed in 2005 with data pooled in analysis. Results found no interaction between the halosulfuron and the s-metolachlor and therefore no synergistic affects. Analysis of the main effects revealed that the highest labeled rate of either herbicide gave the highest percent control relative to the nontreated control. Soil activity of halosulfuron in controlling nutsedge has been shown to be less effective than foliar applications. Our own LD90 greenhouse studies confirmed this to be true. We examined four application techniques of halosulfuron (POST both soil and foliar, POST foliar only, POST soil only, and PRE soil only) to determine the LD90. Results revealed that halosulfuron had the lowest LD90 from the treatments with a foliar application. However, some soil activity was observed. Results from field studies indicated that PRE applications of halosulfuron must be at the highest labeled rate to provide effective control. S-metolachlor was equal to halosulfuron on percent control and is lower in cost on a per acre basis.
Two commonly used management practices for weed control in container plant production are hand pulling and herbicide applications. There are problems associated with these methods including crop phytotoxicity and environmental concerns associated with off-target movement of herbicides. Other nonchemical weed control methods could reduce herbicide-based environmental concerns, mitigate herbicide-resistance development, and improve the overall level of weed control in container nursery production. Readily available tree-mulch species, eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), ground whole loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) were harvested, chipped, and evaluated at multiple depths with and without the herbicide dimethenamid-p. Pine bark mini-nuggets were also evaluated. Mulches were applied at depths of 1, 2, and 4 inches and evaluated over three 30-day periods for their effectiveness in suppressing spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata), long-stalked phyllanthus (Phyllanthus tenellus), and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata). After 30 days, herbicide/mulch combinations, as well as mulch treatments alone, had reduced weed fresh weight 82% to 100% with 1 inch of mulch. By 168 days after treatment, dimethenamid-p had lost all efficacy, and mulch depth was the only factor that still had significant effects, reducing spotted spurge fresh weight by 90%, 99.5%, and 100% with depths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, respectively. The economics of mulch weed control will depend on variables such as available time, nursery layout, location, and availability of resources, equipment, among others. Regardless of variable economic parameters, data from this study reveals that any of these potential mulch species applied at a depth of at least 2 inches will provide long-term weed control in nursery container production.