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  • Author or Editor: G. R. Brown x
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Abstract

The relative decline in fruit size from primary to secondary to tertiary positions on the inflorescence of large-fruited clones was much greater than for small-fruited clones. Large-fruited clones produced fruit with more achenes and larger achenes than did small-fruited clones. Fruit weight was positively correlated with total achenes per fruit, developed achenes per fruit, mean weight of total and developed achenes, and fruit weight per developed achene. These results lead to the conclusion that fruit size differences among strawberry clones are due to the combined effects of developed achene number, developed achene size, differential activity of achenes in producing growth hormones and differential sensitivity of receptacular tissue in responding to growth hormones.

Open Access

Abstract

Applications of lead arsenate to ‘Temple’ oranges lowered the titratable acid content but not the soluble solids or percentage juice. The percentage total decay, peel injury, and creasing were not appreciably influenced by the lead arsenate sprays. Fruit from trees sprayed with lead arsenate passed legal maturity standards 15 to 20 days earlier than fruit from non-sprayed trees.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

A Chatillion Fruit and Vegetable Testor (Model 516-1000 MRPFER) was modified and used to measure capping (plugging) percentage, capping force and pedicel breaking force of strawberry fruits. The resulting instrument (“capometer”) proved to be fast, accurate, portable and well adapted to field use. The correlation (significant at 1% level) between capping percentage obtained with the capometer and capping percentage obtained by hand proved the validity of the use of the capometer to measure the fruit detachment forces. Capping percentage and the force required to cap the fruit and to break the pedicel differed significantly among the cultivars tested.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Diallel crosses were used to determine the inheritance patterns for capping percentage, capping force, and pedicel breaking force in Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cultivars. The diallel crosses were evaluated with the Jinks-Haymen formulae and these results were compared with the phenotypic evaluation of the parent cultivars. Capping percentage, capping force, and pedicel breaking force are different genetic traits but they were significantly correlated with each other. The pattern of inheritance for each trait was controlled by both additive and dominant genes. The overall direction of dominance for the respective traits was for higher capping percentage, lower capping force and lower pedicel breaking force. ‘Gorella’ exhibited extreme overdominance for low capping force. Because of the large environmental influence on these traits, progeny tests such as diallel crosses provide a better evaluation of the genetic potential of a cultivar than its phenotypic performance.

Open Access

Apple growers would like to use pesticides efficiently and diminish concerns about food safety and pesticide usage. The 1992 Apple IPM Program objectives were: 1) to demonstrate the application of Integrated Pest Management practices in commercial orchards and, 2) to provide the training and support needed to help these growers become self sufficient in IPM practices. Grower training meetings and regular scouting of the orchards were the primary educational methods. End-of-the-season evaluations of past and disease incidence were made. Except for Frogeye Leaf Spot, there were no significant differences in insect pest, disease levels or in fruit quality attributes in IPM versus standard blocks. The IPM blocks had significantly more mite incidence. Growers did produce commercially acceptable crops using IPM based decisions while reducing the average past control cost by $56 par acre. Educational programs did help growers to be more proficient in making IPM based decisions.

Free access

Abstract

Cabbage yields were significantly related to the frequency of irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET) and the rate of N fertilization. Irrigating when the mean soil water suction in the upper 24 inches of soil approached 1.6 bars insured an adequate supply of soil water. The N-ET-marketable cabbage yield surface showed that yields did not change greatly for many combinations of ET and N. Yield isoquants suggest possible combinations of N and ET which will produce the same yield.

Open Access

Abstract

The components of strawberry capping (i.e. removal of fruit from the calyx) including capping percentage, capping force, and pedicel breaking force were evaluated in F. × ananassa Duch. cvs. Juspa, Fresno, Surecrop, Tennessee Beauty, Md-US 3082 and F. virginiana Duch. clone 27. Capping percentage varied from 100% for F. virginiana to 1.1% for Md-US 3082 and were intermediate in progenies from crosses that differ widely in respect to this character. Although clones did not differ phenotypically in required capping force, progenies from F. × ananassa × F. virginiana crosses required significantly less force to cap than progenies derived wholly from F. × ananassa. Pedicel breaking forces varied from 562 g for Md-US 3082 to 262 g for ‘Surecrop’ with progeny means near the low parent mean.

Open Access

Abstract

Weekly yields of hand-harvested strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) were compared with weekly percent ripening concentration and total seasonal yields for 45 to 57 clones during 6 seasons at 2 locations in order to identify the production characteristics useful in selecting genotypes suitable for once-over mechanical harvest High weekly yields were positively correlated with high total seasonal yields in every yearly and location comparison. In contrast, high weekly yields were positively correlated with high weekly percent ripening concentration in only 1 of 9 comparisons. Thus, selection of clones with high total seasonal yields is an efficient method of developing high “once-over” yielding cultivars. High seasonal yields and high weekly percent ripening concentration are independent traits, and the combination of these factors will result in cultivars capable of producing very high single harvest yields.

Open Access

Abstract

Pooled data from several cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (V. ashei Reade) showed a highly significant correlation between fruit size and developed seed content although there were exceptions of individual cultivars means. Fruit size and seed no. decreased with progressively later harvests in all cultivars. Seed size differed among the various cultivars but was not related to fruit size. The % of total seeds that developed varied among cultivars and was correlated with fruit size.

Open Access

Abstract

Blackbercy seed germination and earlier seedling emergence were increased by extending the duration of sulfuric acid scarification to 3 hours in an ice bath prior to after-ripening. Increased duration of acid treatment decreased endocarp thickness and seed weight A significant negative correlation was found between endocarp thickness and percent germination, but evaluations of different genetic clones indicate that other inherent factors are also involved in seed germinability.

Open Access