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  • Author or Editor: G. L. Main x
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Three treatments were used to evaluate the effects of missing plants on sweetpotato yield: a single plant missing, two adjacent plants missing and two plants missing separated by a single plant. Individual plant yields of the four plants in the same row in each direction from the missing hill were taken. Yields were also taken from corresponding plants in the rows on each side of the row with the missing plant. A plot therefore consisted of three rows with the center row containing eight or nine plants and one or two missing hills and the other two rows containing nine to 12 plants. A single missing plant tended to increase yield of all grades of the plant in the same row next to the missing hill, but differences were nonsignificant. Two missing plants did not result in individual plant differences, but did increase overall plot yield of jumbo and cull grades. The single plant between two missing hills produced a greater number of small-sized No. 1 roots. No. 1 yield of plants in adjacent rows across from the single plant produced lower No. 1 yields.

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Eight plant bed fertilizer treatments (N–P–K) were evaluated for the effect on plant production and sweetpotato yield. The treatments ranged from 0–0–0 to 450–450–450 lb/ac. `Beauregard' roots were bedded. After the first plant cutting, 50 lb/ac 34–0–0 was applied to half of the beds. For the second cutting, the 0N–0P–0K treatment without additional N produced plants with less green weight compared to the other treatments; there were no differences between the other 15 treatments. For the first plant cutting, 150–150–150 and 150–300–450 lb/ac produced plants with less green weight compared to 0–0–0, 75–150–300, 300–450–600, and 450–450–450 lb/ac. There were no differences in sweetpotato yield due to plant bed fertilization.

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Seedling plants from the three parents `Resisto', `Southern Delight', and `L86-33', along with three pot sizes (3.8-, 10.2-, and 17.7-cm diameters) were evaluated. Root characteristics evaluated in both the greenhouse and field included: number, length, diameter, length diameter ratio (L:D), size, skin color, flesh color, internal cambium ring (color and width), and the number of lateral and secondary roots. After greenhouse evaluation, plants were transplanted to the field. The 3.8-cm pot did not produce enough roots in the greenhouse for evaluation. In the 10.2-cm pots, greenhouse root number was correlated with the yield, root size, and L:D, and negatively correlated with skin color in the field. Flesh color was correlated with smoothness and flesh color in the field. In the 17.8-cm pots, flesh color, smoothness, and skin color in the greenhouse were correlated with the same character in the field. Skin color was also negatively correlated with smoothness in the field. No differences were found in field yield due to pot size. Results from one season showed that the 10.2-cm pot was effective for greenhouse selection of flesh color, skin color, and smoothness in seedling sweetpotato plants.

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Seventeen plant bed fertilizer treatments including different rates of N, P, and K were evaluated for the effect on plant production and sweetpotato yield. `Beauregard' storage roots were bedded. Treatments were 0, 40, 80 lb N/ac; 0, 80, 160 lb P/ac; or 0, 75, 150, and 300 lb K/ac. Each nutrient was evaluated in a separate trial. After the first cutting, half of the N treatments and all P and K treatments had 40 lb N/ac top-dressed on the beds. For the first cutting the high rate of N (80 lb/ac) had a higher green weight than the low rate of 0 lb/ac. There wer no other differences found in the first or second cuttings for plant production or yield. Plant bed fertilization also had no effect on transplant survival.

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'Sunbelt' is a juice grape cultivar developed by the Univ. of Arkansas. This cultivar produces 'Concord'-type juice and is adapted to warm climatic conditions of the southern United States. Preliminary evaluation showed that 'Sunbelt' has potential to produce high-quality juice under the hot climatic conditions of the San Joaquin Valley. A study was conducted during the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons to further evaluate the adaptation of 'Sunbelt' to the San Joaquin Valley and determine the response of this cultivar to selected pruning methods. Vines were grown for two seasons without use of insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides. Vines were subjected to four pruning treatments: severe hand pruning (60-80 nodes retained/vine); moderate hand pruning (120-160 nodes retained/vine); machine pruning with hand follow-up (160-180 nodes retained/vine); and minimal pruning (200-400 nodes retained/vine). Vines were trained to a Geneva Double Curtain trellis system. Yield, components of yield, and juice quality were significantly impacted by pruning treatment. In both seasons, mechanized systems of pruning (machine and minimal) produced higher yield than hand pruning. Minimal pruning resulted in the highest yield (42 t·ha-1) in 1998, while yield from the machine-pruned vines was highest (29 t·ha-1) in 1999. Minimally pruned vines had the highest clusters/vine and lowest cluster weight among the treatments. The extremely high yields obtained for the minimal pruning treatments produced fruit that was less mature resulting in juice with lower soluble solids than the other treatments in 1998. However, in 1999 the juice from minimally pruned vines had the highest soluble solids. Sensory analysis of juice produced in 1999 showed that the juice from the machine-pruned treatment had the least color intensity. Sensory analysis showed that minimal and severe hand pruning were ranked higher for sweetness than machine and moderate hand pruning. In the second year of the study, the juice from the minimal-pruned and severe hand-pruned treatment were preferred over the moderate hand-pruned treatment or the machine-pruned treatment.

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`Beauregard' storage roots which were discarded from the Mississippi sweetpotato foundation seed program because of the presence of flesh mutations were bedded in Spring 1991. After the plants were pulled from the roots, the roots were further examined, and the flesh mutations were characterized by size and frequency. The progency from the original roots were examined for flesh mutations for three generations in 1991, 1992, and 1993. The degree of mutation in the original root did not influence the degree of mutation in succeeding generations of storage roots. In 1992 and 1993, the degree of mutation in the third and fourth generation roots did not differ from that of storage roots grown from plants from the foundation seed plant beds.

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`Beauregard' and `Centennial' were planted in plots of four different topsoil thicknesses (0, 3, 6, and 9 inches) to evaluate the effect of topsoil thickness on sweetpotato production. In 1994, the 0-inch topsoil treatment produced a greater total marketable yield for `Beauregard' than did the 6- and 9-inch topsoil for `Centennial'. The 0- and 9-inch topsoil produced a greater total marketable yield than did the 3- and 6-inch treatment. When averaged over 2 years, 1993 and 1994, there were no differences in total marketable yield in either `Beauregard' or `Centennial' due to topsoil thickness. Averaged over both years, topsoil thickness had no effect on weight, diameter, or length of `Beauregard' roots.

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Abstract

Two cultivars of strawberries originally harvested for fresh market were held under 5 postharvest storage treatments and then dipped in one of 4 chemical treatments. The berries were sliced or left whole, dipped, and then processed by freezing or thermal processing. The processed product from ‘Cardinal’ was superior to that from ‘Sunrise’ in this study, regardless of the holding or dip treatment. ‘Cardinal’ berries could be utilized for processing initially and after storage for 4 days at 4°C and after 2 days at 21°; however, ‘Sunrise’ was acceptable only initially and up to 4 days at 4°. Dipping berries for 1 min in a 0.5% calcium lactate solution or a 0.5% Ca lactate plus 1% citric acid solution improved berry firmness and character. The Ca dips were more effective in firming sliced berries than in firming whole berries. The Howard mold count of the berries became a major limiting factor for many of the postharvest storage treatments.

Open Access