Volume of water captured in a container as a function of sprinkler type, spacing, plant type, and container size was measured for marketable-sized plants. Percent water captured was calculated and a model to predict this value derived. Percent water captured was inversely related to the leaf area contained in the cylinder over the container when containers were separated, and with total plant leaf area at a pot-to-pot spacing. This relationship was independent of leaf curvature (concave vs. convex). Canopy densities were less related to percent water captured than leaf areas. Irrigation application efficiencies separated by spacing ranged from 37% at a close spacing to 25% at a spacing of 7.6 cm between containers. Container spacing, canopy shedding, and possibly some canopy retention of water later lost by evaporation were determined to be the main factors associated with the low efficiencies. The results suggest that higher irrigation application efficiencies would be maintained only if plants were transplanted to larger containers before reaching maximum canopy size rather than spacing existing containers to achieve more room for canopy growth.
R.C. Beeson Jr. and G.W. Knox
P.C. Andersen, J.G. Norcini, and G.W. Knox
Leaf physiology and plant growth of Rhododendron × `Pink Ruffles' were compared under conditions of 100% sun and under polyethylene shadecloth with specifications of 69%, 47%, and 29% light transmittance. Net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapor (gs) were often reduced for plants in the 100% sun regime, although few differences existed among the 69%, 47%, and 29% sun treatments. Stomatal conductance was very sensitive to leaf to air vapor pressure deficits (VPD), as evidenced by an 85% increase in gs with a decrease in VPD from 3.2 to 2.2 kPa. Light response curves established for plants after 54 days of exposure to 100% and 29% sun were similar, although A was consistently higher at all levels of photosynthetic photon flux for plants in the 29% sun regime. Maximum A was ≈5 and 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 for 100% and 29% sun-grown plants, respectively; light saturation occurred at ≈ 800 μmol·m-2·s-1 Midday relative leaf water content and leaf water potential were not affected by sun regime. The plant growth index decreased with increasing light level. Leaf, stem, and root dry weights; total leaf number and dry weight; total and individual leaf area; dry weight per leaf; and leaf chlorophyll concentration were reduced in 100% sun, yet few differences existed among the 69%, 47%, and 29% sun treatments. Shoot: root ratio and specific leaf weight were proportional to light level. Plants grown in the 100% sun regime were chlorotic and dwarfed, and plants in 29% sun were not sufficiently compact. One year after transplanting to the field under 100% sun, plants of all treatments were chlorotic and failed to grow.
J.G. Norcini, P.C. Andersen, and G.W. Knox
Leaf physiology and plant growth of Photinia x fraseri Dress were assessed when grown under full sunlight or (100% sun) or polypropylene shadecloth with a light transmittance of 69%, 47%, or 29% sun. Plants in 69% or 47% sun usually had the highest midday net CO2 assimilation rates (A). Net CO, assimilation rate was most dependent on photosynthetic photon flex (PPF R2 = 0.60), whereas stomata] conductance to water vapor was primarily influenced by vapor pressure deficit (R2 = 0.69). Stomatal conductance was often inversely related to sun level, and intercellular CO2 concentration was often elevated under 29% sun. Midday relative leaf water content and leaf water potential were unaffected by light regime. Light-saturated A was achieved at ≈ 1550 and 1150 μmol·m-2·s-1 for 100% and 29% sun-grown plants, respectively. Under 29% sun, plants had a lower light compensation point and a higher A at PPF < 1100 μmol·m-2·s-1. Total growth was best under 100% sun in terms of growth index (GI) increase, total leaf area, number of leaves, and dry weight (total, stem, leaf, and root), although plants from all treatments had the same GI increase by the end of the experiment. Plants in all treatments had acceptable growth habit (upright and well branched); however, plants grown in 29% sun were too sparsley foliated to be considered marketable. There were no differences in growth among the four treatments 7 months after the Photinia were transplanted to the field.
Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Nancy G. West, Christine Wiese, Gitta Hasing, Geoffrey Denny, and Gary W. Knox
Despite inconsistent reports of nitrogen (N) fertilization response on growth of landscape-grown woody ornamentals, broad N fertilization recommendations exist in the literature. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and quality response of three landscape-grown woody shrub species to N fertilizer. Three ornamental shrub species, ‘Alba’ indian hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica), sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum), and ‘RADrazz’ (Knock Out™) rose (Rosa) were transplanted into field soils in central Florida (U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zone 9a). Controlled-release N fertilizer was applied at an annual N rate of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 lb/1000 ft2 for 100 weeks. Plant size index measurements, SPAD readings (a measure of greenness), and visual quality ratings were completed every month through 52 weeks after planting (WAP) and then every 3 months through 100 WAP. Plant tissue total Kjeldahl N (TKN) concentrations and shoot biomass were measured at 100 WAP. Results of regression analysis indicated little to no plant response (size index, biomass, SPAD) to N fertilizer rate. Shrub quality was acceptable for all species through 76 WAP regardless of the N fertilization rate. However, quality of rose and sweet viburnum fertilized with N at the low rates (<2 lb/1000 ft2) was less than acceptable (<3 out of 5) after 76 WAP. Results suggest that posttransplant applications of fertilizer may not increase plant growth, but that low-to-moderate levels of N fertilization (2 to 4 lb/1000 ft2 per year) may help plant maintain quality postestablishment.
W.C. Dunwell, D. Fare, M.A. Arnold, K. Tilt, G. Knox, W. Witte, P. Knight, M. Pooler, W. Klingeman, A. Niemiera, J. Ruter, T. Yeager, T. Ranney, R. Beeson, J. Lindstrom, E. Bush, A. Owings, and M. Schnelle
The Southern Extension and Research Activities/Information Exchange Group-27 (SERA/IEG-27) is sponsored by the Southern Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors. Thirteen universities and the U.S. National Arboretum cooperate with official representatives from extension and research programs. The objective of the group is to identify, evaluate, select, and disseminate information on superior, environmentally sustainable, landscape plants for nursery crop production and landscape systems in the southeastern U.S. Plants are distributed to members responding to a request from cooperators for plant evaluation. Those who agree to cooperate are expected to grow the selected liner to landscape size, then transplant it in a landscape setting. The plant is rated for insect, disease, and cold damage, heat stress, growth rate, ornamental flowering and fruiting, fall color, commercial production potential, landscape potential, invasiveness potential, and insect disease transmission potential. Growth rate is evaluated annually by recording plant height and width. Initial bloom date is reported followed by bloom duration in days. Following evaluation, the group collectively and individually disseminates information gained from the plant evaluation system to a wide variety of audiences.