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  • Author or Editor: G. H. Sullivan x
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Abstract

Cost budgeting methods were used to determine harvesting costs and net returns under hand, combination, and mechanized harvest operations. Mechanized harvest methods generated the highest net return potentials for growers. Gross receipts per unit area, required to break even, were significantly lower under mechanized harvest operations. Net returns per unit of area for hand harvest and combination harvest were similar.

Open Access

Abstract

Analysis of costs of tomatoes for processing indicated savings from direct seeding as compared to transplanting. Total production costs for direct seeding averaged $17.34 per acre, or 11% less than for transplanting operations, excluding potential returns from increased useable yields under direct seeding.

Open Access

Abstract

A survey conducted among all wholesale producers of florist crops in Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and St. Louis revealed annual gross sales for 126 firms averaged $183,000 per firm. Retail florists comprised the principal customer type, followed by commission and merchant wholesalers. The number of firms selling entirely to terminal wholesale flower markets has declined appreciably in recent years with a trend toward expansion of sales to mass market outlets. A trend toward increased economic concentration among midwestern wholesale producers was evident Wholesale producers selling direct to retailers had an improved potential market position relative to wholesale producers selling primarily to terminal market wholesalers. Trade practices reflected these differences in market position.

Open Access

Abstract

A quantitative evaluation of interregional competition among foreign and domestic carnation producers in U.S. markets was completed using linear programming. Employing a revised transportation model, parameters included current carnation production costs, transportation rates, domestic consumption, domestic production, and foreign supplies. The sensitivity of the results to changes in parameters was examined through the application of alternative regional supply capabilities capabilities and tariff rates.

Results indicated that under current regional cost relationships, California and Colorado have a competitive advantage in most U.S. markets over producers in all other domestic and foreign production areas. While California and Colorado producers have expanded carnation production in recent years, they have not fully utilized their economic advantage in expanding rapidly enough to meet increases in domestic demand and competition from Latin America. Producers in all domestic production areas except California and Colorado were found to be at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production costs and greater seasonal fluctuations in carnation quality and quantity.

Open Access

Abstract

Qualitative economic research techniques were used to determine the effect of merchandise structure reorganization on the seasonality of sales for retail florists. Results indicated that most nontraditional forms of demand, including specialty arrangements, giftware, and garden center items, significantly increased seasonal fluctuations in sales patterns for retail florists. Artificial flowers comprised a major source of nontraditional sales and did not contribute significantly to the seasonal fluctuations in florists' sales patterns.

Nontraditional sales accounted for nearly 45% of retail florists' gross volume in 1967 compared with only 9% in 1969 (2, 5, 6). Specialty arrangements and artificial flowers comprised the greatest source of nontraditional sales for retail florists.

Open Access

Abstract

Linear programming was used to determine the optimum shipping pattern for five processed tomato products; canned whole tomatoes, catsup, juice, puree, and sauce and paste. The research objective was to assess the regional advantage attributed to transportation cost differences for the five tomato products.

Processors in California, the dominant tomato processing state, required the widest distribution pattern in each product category. Processors in Indiana-Ohio followed California in breadth of distribution, especially for catsup, juice, and canned whole tomatoes. Eastern production regions were able to optimally distribute their surplus product supplies in a more restricted market area, principally to nearby regions of consumption.

The results provided a basis for evaluation of production planning and marketing strategy at the regional and firm levels. The model solution may be used as a guide to production levels. The estimated optimal shipping patterns and regional wholesale price differences may be used as a guide to regional direction of marketing efforts for a given product category. In addition, the set of implied wholesale price differences may be used as a guide to product mix selection.

Open Access

Abstract

Comparison of unit production costs in 5 model multi-product tomato processing plants was completed using economic-engineering methods to synthesize the cost data. Fixed production costs were found to average 16% of total unit production costs for all model plants and products. Fixed costs were most sensitive to operational and seasonal scale effects.

Variable production costs comprised the largest portion of total unit production costs, averaging 84% for all model plants and products. Processing supplies comprised the largest component of variable unit production costs for canned whole tomatoes, tomato juice, and catsup, while raw products supplies comprised the largest variable cost component for tomato puree and paste. Variable costs accounted for the largest regional differences in total unit production costs. The relative production cost differences derived in this study serve as a basis of evaluation of production strategies and comparative advantages at the plant, firm, and region levels.

Open Access

Abstract

The current problems centering upon profitability in agriculture have generated increased pressure for production diversification and management efficiency (USDA, 1987). Expanding market opportunities and relatively high gross economic returns have made horticultural enterprises a primary focus of farm production diversification initiatives nationwide. However, the economic success of such diversification initiatives often has been jeopardized by failure of producers to comprehensively evaluate the integrated requirements for capital, equipment, labor, and management resources in the decisionmaking process (Sullivan et al., 1988b).

Open Access

Abstract

Traditional methods of bulk handling mechanically harvested tomatoes in pallet bins were compared with handling in bulk trailer units. Substantially greater cost reduction resulted from the bulk trailer system; costs per ton to handle and transport mechanically harvested tomatoes in pallet bins averaged $4.59 compared to $1.86 under the bulk trailer system. Additional savings were realized from utilization of the equipment in the bulk trailer system with more than 1 mechanical harvesting unit.

Open Access

Abstract

The concept of genetic control of efficiency of nutrient utilization in tomatoes was investigated within naturally occurring variation among 146 strains. Under severe N stress (35 mg of N per plant) in nutrient culture solutions efficient strains produced as much as 45% more dry weight than inefficient strains. Efficiency in N utilization (NER) was defined as the mg of dry weight produced for each mg of N absorbed by a plant. Differences in N uptake and translocation by the root systems did not explain variations in efficiency. At equal total N concentrations in leaves, efficient plants produced larger lower leaves and maintained more normal tissues. High NER values for efficient strains also were associated with greater stem weights and lower total N concentrations. Inheritance studies showed that dominance and additive X additive gene effects made the major contributions to variation in both plant dry weight and N efficiency.

Open Access