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  • Author or Editor: G. E. Wilcox x
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Abstract

Total yield and percentage of ripe tomato fruit were significantly increased following single foliar applications of 0.84 lb. per acre (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon). Maximum responses were noted at 14 days after treatment. Three tomato cultivars seeded on 3 dates responded similarly. Seventeen days after ethephon application at the 15 percent ripe fruit stage, useable ripe fruit yield was increased to more than 90 percent of the total fruit yield, compared to 59 percent useable ripe fruit for the control. The application of ethephon advanced harvest by 12 to 14 days, with an increase in useable ripe fruit yield of 5 to 10 tons per acre over the optimum potential of the normal ripening rate for single-harvest culture.

Open Access

Abstract

Cost budgeting methods were used to determine harvesting costs and net returns under hand, combination, and mechanized harvest operations. Mechanized harvest methods generated the highest net return potentials for growers. Gross receipts per unit area, required to break even, were significantly lower under mechanized harvest operations. Net returns per unit of area for hand harvest and combination harvest were similar.

Open Access

Abstract

Analysis of costs of tomatoes for processing indicated savings from direct seeding as compared to transplanting. Total production costs for direct seeding averaged $17.34 per acre, or 11% less than for transplanting operations, excluding potential returns from increased useable yields under direct seeding.

Open Access

Abstract

An integrated tomato seedling system was developed by assembling components to regulate plant population, apply starter fertilizer, and promote seedling emergence. Plant population was regulated by the release of 4-7 seeds per clump at the desired spacing in the row. Starter fertilizer was sprayed on the seed as a 2-3-0, N-P-K (2-7-0 oxide form) solution at 500 ml per 30 m (1 pint per 100 ft) of row. An anticrustant was applied into the seed furrow and firmed by a press wheel with a concave surface. The system was adapted to several commercial seeders and enabled the establishment of dependable stands on soils with crusting tendencies.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Tomato fruit accumulated nitrate when the controlled environmental conditions combined high temperature, high N fertilization level, and low light intensity. Nitrate accumulation in the fruit was preceded by a condition of low nitrate reductase activity and nitrate accumulation in the leaves. The processed product with high concentration of nitrate caused extensive detinning of internal can surfaces after 6 months’ storage at room temperature.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to determine N-use-efficiency of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) grown in a loamy sand under trickle irrigation and black plastic mulch. Nitrogen rates of 0, 67, or 100 kg N/ha preplant plus 0, 50, or 100 ppm trickle applied N (fertigation) were compared. Significant increases in stem growth, soil NO3-N, petiole NO3-N, and early and total yields generally were attained with increasing preplant N fertilization rates. Muskmelon yield response to increasing N fertigation response was increased in regimes that received no preplant N. Fertigation response was reduced in regimes that received 67 or 100 kg preplant N/ha. A significant curvilinear relationship was established between soil saturation extract NO3-N and petiole NO3-N.

Open Access

Abstract

Growth and elemental uptake patterns in field-grown plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) were determined from 21 days after emergence to harvest. Dry weight accumulation was linear after 56 days at 5.55 g/day-plant. Dry weight accumulation after 70 days was mainly as fruit, which accumulated at 4.9 g/day-plant. Nutrient accumulation per day after 70 days was 20 mg N, 2 mg P, 25 mg K, 120 mg Ca and 10 mg Mg in the vines, and 150 mg N, 21 mg P, 231 mg K, 6 mg CA and 10 mg Mg in the fruit. Thus, after 70 days about 90% of the N, P and K, 5% of the Ca and 32% of the Mg uptake was in the fruit.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Recently matured whole leaves of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cvs. Centennial and Knox) gave the most reliable indication of total N, while NO3-N in older mature leaf petioles better reflected N availability and absorption. The NO3-N content of petioles was more indicative of N status of the plant than total N analysis of whole leaves. The NO3-N and total N contents of leaf parts generally decreased with increasing maturity. Soil solution NO3-N concentration increased exponentially with increasing N application rates. The first 45 kg N/ha increments increased soil solution NO3-N concentration only 10 ppm whereas the fourth 45 kg N/ha increment increased NO3-N concentration 40 ppm. Ninety kg N/ha application produced a concentration of 48 ppm NO3-N that resulted in a nearly maximum petiole concentration of 14,500 ppm NO3-N, indicating that this NO3-N concentration provided sufficient available N for the immediate reserve requirements for plant growth.

Open Access

Abstract

Tomato plants ‘Campbell 1327’ grown in peat with NH4 nutrition had no visible symptoms of NH4 toxicity, while severe symptoms of NH4 toxicity were displayed in solution or sand culture. Growth of plants was much better with NO3-N than NH4-N in sand, vermiculite, or solution culture; but in peat, growth of NH4-treated plants equalled or exceeded that of NO3-treated plants in sand, vermiculite, and peat. The total dry weight of NH4-treated plants grown in peat was 2, 2.5, and 3.4 times higher than plants grown in vermiculite, sand, and solution culture, respectively. Content of uncomplexed ASHS.109.3.406 in NH4-treated plants grown in peat was reduced markedly compared with other media. NH4-treated plants grown in sand, vermiculite, and solution culture, displaying NH4 toxicity symptoms, had a total amino acid:free NH4 + molar ratio < 2, compared to 6-8 with NO3. For NH4-treated plants grown in peat the ratio was similar to that of NO3-treated plants. Asparagine and glutamine in NH4-treated plants grown in peat were 3.5 and 11.3 times higher than with NO3-N, indicating a high efficiency in detoxification of NH4 through incorporation into these amino acids. The medium on which a plant is grown can have a marked influence on the plant response to N form.

Open Access

Abstract

The current problems centering upon profitability in agriculture have generated increased pressure for production diversification and management efficiency (USDA, 1987). Expanding market opportunities and relatively high gross economic returns have made horticultural enterprises a primary focus of farm production diversification initiatives nationwide. However, the economic success of such diversification initiatives often has been jeopardized by failure of producers to comprehensively evaluate the integrated requirements for capital, equipment, labor, and management resources in the decisionmaking process (Sullivan et al., 1988b).

Open Access