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  • Author or Editor: Frank B. Matta x
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Patricia Quesada and Frank B. Matta

Two species of Passiflora, P. edulis f. edulis (purple passion fruit) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa (yellow passion fruit), and P. incarnata (maypop), were evaluated for acclimation and cold hardiness, using differential thermal analysis, electrolyte leakage and the tetrazolium stain test. The two species showed the capacity to acclimate several degrees during the evaluation period and the three tests gave similar lethal temperatures for the two species; –9C to –10C for yellow passion fruit, –10C to –12C for purple passion fruit and –11C to –13C for maypop. Purple and yellow passion fruit were also assayed for survival after a freeze-thaw cycle, using a tissue culture regeneration technique called “feeder plate”. Yellow passion fruit did not show the capacity to regenerate at any of the temperatures used (0, –3, –6C). Purple passion fruit showed callus formation even at the lowest temperature (–6C).

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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

A study of spur-type apple scion cultivars on semi-dwarf and dwarf apple rootstocks was conducted to evaluate and identify suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Fruit weight varied among scion/stock combinations. `Royal Gala' on MM111 and MM106 and `Ultra Gold' on MM106 yielded the heaviest fruit. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the lightest fruit. Fruit length diameter ratio (L/D) was the highest for `Blushing Golden' on M7A and MM111, and `Ultra Gold' on MM111. The L/D ratio of `Royal Gala' was not affected by rootstock. Scion cultivars on M7A and M26 tended to have more red fruit than on the remaining rootstocks. `Ultra Gold' on M26 and `Braeburn' on Mark and MM111 had the firmest fruit. Overall, trees on M7A and Mark rootstock tended to produce firm fruit. Juice pH was significantly affected by scion-stock combination. In general, `Royal Gala', regardless of rootstock, had the highest juice pH, whereas `Ultra Mac' and `Jon-A-Red' produced the lowest pH. `Blushing Golden' on MM111 and `Royal Gala' on M26 had the highest soluble solids concentration (SSC). Soluble solids concentration of scion cultivars on MM106 did not differ.

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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

The performance of spur-type apple cultivars was evaluated on MM.111, MM.106, M.7A, M.26, and Mark rootstocks. Shoot growth, leaf area, and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) were affected by scion cultivar and rootstock. Empire on Mark stock had less shoot growth. Ultra Mac on M.7A produced smaller leaf area. `Braeburn' on Mark stock exhibited higher TNC content. Scion cultivar and stock influenced fruit weight and yield, L: D ratio, SSC, pH, and the content of N, P, K in leaves and fruit. `Braeburn' on M.7A, M.26, and MM.111 produced greater yield per tree. L: D ratio was higher in `Ultra Gold' on MM.106. `Ultra Gold' and `Jon-A-Red' had higher SSC on Mark. `Empire' and `Ultra Gold' on M.7A resulted in higher juice pH. `Empire' on MM.106 produced heavier fruit and higher N content in leaves and fruit. `Ultra Mac' on M.7A showed higher P and K content in the fruit.

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Frank B. Matta and Pedro Jover

An experiment was conducted to determine emergence, free abscisic acid (ABA), and total indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels of 'Hughes' and 'Owens' pecan nuts subjected for 45, 90, and 135 days to stratification and storage at 10C; 'Hughes' nut showed a positive relationship between emergence and days in stratification. However, free ABA and total IAA were not related to days in stratification. Emergence percentages of 'Hughes' and 'Owens' were negatively related to days of storage at 10C. Emergence was not related to levels of free ABA or IAA. Free ABA levels and total IAA levels of 'Hughes' were negatively related to days in storage at 10C.

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Usman Siswanto and Frank B. Matta

This study was established to determine the influence of scion/stock combination on leaf area, yield efficiency, and fruit quality attributes in effort to identify the most suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Twenty-nine scion/stock combinations were grown at the Pontotoc Ridge-Flatwoods Research and Extension Center, North Mississippi. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with six single tree replications. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the smallest leaf area, while the largest leaf area was produced by the combination of `Royal Gala' on MM106 and `Blushing Golden' on M7A. Scion/stock combinations significantly affected yield efficiency, fruit yellow pigment dvelopment, firmness and fruit mineral composition. Scion cultivars on Mark resulted in the highest yield efficiency, except `Empire'. `Ultra Gold' and `Braeburn' on Mark and `Blushing Golden' on MM111 led to yellow pigmentation in the highest category. Meanwhile, `Braeburn' on Mark was among the scion/stock combinations that produced the firmest fruit. And fruit from trees on Mark consistently had high calcium (Ca) levels. After 7 years, `Royal Gala' on Mark produced the highest yield efficiency. `Braeburn' on Mark resulted in both the firmest fruit and the highest fruit Ca concentration.

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Frank B. Matta and Amin Kawatin

Stem critical temperatures for September showed that `Hughes' was later in acclimating than `Jackson'. Maximum hardiness for all cultivars occurred in January and deacclimation in February. Bud critical temperatures for September and October also showed that `Hughes' acclimated later than the other cultivars. Maximum hardiness for buds occurred in January and deacclimation in March. In December, the LT50 for the tetrazolium test, the electrolyte leakage test, and the tissue browning test were –18, –20, and –20C, respectively, as shown by differential thermal analysis of `Desirable'.

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Frank B. Matta and Patricia Quesada

Differential thermal analysis, electrolyte leakage, tetrazolium stain test, and the “feeder plate” tissue culture regeneration technique were used to determine cold hardiness of passion fruit and maypop. The “feeder plate” technique showed that yellow passion fruit did not regenerate at 0C, -3C, and -6C while purple passion fruit showed callus formation at all temperatures. The remaining tests gave similar lethal temperatures for the two species. Lethal temperatures were -9C to -10C, -10C to -I2C, and -11C to -13C for yellow and purple passion fruit and maypop, respectively.

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Hla Aung and Frank B. Matta

One year old Asian pear scion cultivars were grafted onto Pyrus calleryana rootstock utilizing two grafting methods (whip grafting and splice side grafting). Percentage survival of grafted scions was 78 and 96 via the splice side graft and the whip graft, respectfully. Shoot length and caliper 80 days after grafting did not vary between cultivars. `Yakumo' and 'Chojuro' produced a greater number of branches as compared to the remaining cultivars. `Yakumo', `Chojuro', `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced the least amount of shoot growth. Branching angle was greatest for `Seigyoku', `Chojuro' and `Yakumo' with 60, 70, and 55 degrees, respectfully. As indicated by leaf area, `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced large leaves and `Yakumo' and `Chojuro' produced small leaves.

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Frank B. Matta and Amin Kawatin

Our objectives were to 1) Determine acclimation and deacclimation patterns of buds and stems of four pecan cultivars in Mississippi and 2) to determine the relationship between cold hardiness, based on DTA, and tissue injury, based or viability tests. Stem critical temperatures for September showed that `Hughes' was slower in acclimating than `Jackson'. Maximum hardiness for all cultivars occurred in January, except for `Desirable', which reached maximum hardiness in December but started deacclimating in January. Deacclimation for the remaining cultivars started in February. Bud critical temperatures for September and October also show that `Hughes' was slower in acclimating compared to the remaining cultivars. Maximum bud hardiness for `Desirable' occurred in December, with the remaining cultivars reaching maximum hardiness in January. Bud deacclimation for all cultivars occurred in March. The LD50 for the tetrazolium and electrolyte leakage tests occurred at about –32 and –30C, respectively. In buds, LT50 for the tetrazolium test was –18C. The LT50 electrolyte leakage and browning test was –20C.

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Hla Aung and Frank B. Matta

One year old Asian pear scion cultivars were grafted onto Pyrus calleryana rootstock utilizing two grafting methods (whip grafting and splice side grafting). Percentage survival of grafted scions was 78 and 96 via the splice side graft and the whip graft, respectfully. Shoot length and caliper 80 days after grafting did not vary between cultivars. `Yakumo' and 'Chojuro' produced a greater number of branches as compared to the remaining cultivars. `Yakumo', `Chojuro', `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced the least amount of shoot growth. Branching angle was greatest for `Seigyoku', `Chojuro' and `Yakumo' with 60, 70, and 55 degrees, respectfully. As indicated by leaf area, `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced large leaves and `Yakumo' and `Chojuro' produced small leaves.