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Abstract

Foliar sprays of dikegulac-sodium (sodium salt of 2,3:4,6-bis-0-(1-methylethylidene)-alpha-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid) at 722 and 2888 ppm and hand-pinching significantly increased branching of chili pepper cultivars ‘Sandia’, ‘NM 6’, and ‘Espanola 1’ (Capsicum annuum L.). Both dikegulac-sodium concentrations were equally effective in increasing branching. Hand-pinching and dikegulac-sodium at 722 ppm did not influence plant height. Dikegulac-sodium at 2888 ppm significantly reduced plant height. Hand-pinching and dikegulac-sodium at 722 ppm delayed first harvest by 9 days. Dikegulac-sodium at 2888 ppm delayed first harvest by 34 days. Dikegulac-sodium at 5053 ppm resulted in death of treated plants. All concentrations of dikegulac-sodium decreased yield.

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One year old Asian pear scion cultivars were grafted onto Pyrus calleryana rootstock utilizing two grafting methods (whip grafting and splice side grafting). Percentage survival of grafted scions was 78 and 96 via the splice side graft and the whip graft, respectfully. Shoot length and caliper 80 days after grafting did not vary between cultivars. `Yakumo' and 'Chojuro' produced a greater number of branches as compared to the remaining cultivars. `Yakumo', `Chojuro', `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced the least amount of shoot growth. Branching angle was greatest for `Seigyoku', `Chojuro' and `Yakumo' with 60, 70, and 55 degrees, respectfully. As indicated by leaf area, `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced large leaves and `Yakumo' and `Chojuro' produced small leaves.

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Authors: and

One year old Asian pear scion cultivars were grafted onto Pyrus calleryana rootstock utilizing two grafting methods (whip grafting and splice side grafting). Percentage survival of grafted scions was 78 and 96 via the splice side graft and the whip graft, respectfully. Shoot length and caliper 80 days after grafting did not vary between cultivars. `Yakumo' and 'Chojuro' produced a greater number of branches as compared to the remaining cultivars. `Yakumo', `Chojuro', `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced the least amount of shoot growth. Branching angle was greatest for `Seigyoku', `Chojuro' and `Yakumo' with 60, 70, and 55 degrees, respectfully. As indicated by leaf area, `Seuri' and `Hosui' produced large leaves and `Yakumo' and `Chojuro' produced small leaves.

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Passion fruit has become a popular addition to our diet and is currently grown in the United States. Passion fruit shelf life could be extended if green mature fruit can be induced to ripen after exposure to ethylene. Greenhouse grown purple passion fruits were harvested in a green mature stage 55 and 60 days after anthesis (DAA) and stored for 10 days at 10°C. After storage half of the fruits were treated with 10 ppm ethylene for 35 hours and stored at room temperature (21°C) for 48 hours. The juice of treated and non-treated fruit was analyzed for comparison with juice of vine-ripened fruit. Total soluble solids and pH of the juice did not differ in green mature fruits harvested 55 and 60 DAA.. compared to vine-ripened fruits (70-80 DAA). Sucrose content decreased and fructose and glucose increased after storage, regardless of ethylene treatment. Fruits harvested 55 and 60 DAA, with or without ethylene and stored for 10 days, developed the same sugar content, soluble solids and pH as those that ripened on the vine.

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Greenhouse-grown purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) were harvested mature-green 55 or 60 days after anthesis (DAA) and stored for 10 days at 10C. After storage, half the fruit were treated with 10 μl ethylene/liter for 35 hours and then stored at 21C for 48 hours. Juice of treated and nontreated fruit was analyzed for comparison with juice of vine-ripened fruit (harvested 70 to 80 DAA). Sucrose concentration decreased and fructose and glucose concentrations increased after storage, regardless of ethylene treatment. Fruit harvested 55 or 60 DAA, with or without ethylene, had the same sugar and soluble solids concentrations and pH as vine-ripened fruit. Ethylene treatment enhanced surface purple pigmentation of fruit harvested mature-green.

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An experiment was conducted to determine emergence, free abscisic acid (ABA), and total indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels of 'Hughes' and 'Owens' pecan nuts subjected for 45, 90, and 135 days to stratification and storage at 10C; 'Hughes' nut showed a positive relationship between emergence and days in stratification. However, free ABA and total IAA were not related to days in stratification. Emergence percentages of 'Hughes' and 'Owens' were negatively related to days of storage at 10C. Emergence was not related to levels of free ABA or IAA. Free ABA levels and total IAA levels of 'Hughes' were negatively related to days in storage at 10C.

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Two species of Passiflora, P. edulis f. edulis (purple passion fruit) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa (yellow passion fruit), and P. incarnata (maypop), were evaluated for acclimation and cold hardiness, using differential thermal analysis, electrolyte leakage and the tetrazolium stain test. The two species showed the capacity to acclimate several degrees during the evaluation period and the three tests gave similar lethal temperatures for the two species; –9C to –10C for yellow passion fruit, –10C to –12C for purple passion fruit and –11C to –13C for maypop. Purple and yellow passion fruit were also assayed for survival after a freeze-thaw cycle, using a tissue culture regeneration technique called “feeder plate”. Yellow passion fruit did not show the capacity to regenerate at any of the temperatures used (0, –3, –6C). Purple passion fruit showed callus formation even at the lowest temperature (–6C).

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A study of spur-type apple scion cultivars on semi-dwarf and dwarf apple rootstocks was conducted to evaluate and identify suitable scion/stock combination for Mississippi. Fruit weight varied among scion/stock combinations. `Royal Gala' on MM111 and MM106 and `Ultra Gold' on MM106 yielded the heaviest fruit. `Jon-A-Red' on Mark produced the lightest fruit. Fruit length diameter ratio (L/D) was the highest for `Blushing Golden' on M7A and MM111, and `Ultra Gold' on MM111. The L/D ratio of `Royal Gala' was not affected by rootstock. Scion cultivars on M7A and M26 tended to have more red fruit than on the remaining rootstocks. `Ultra Gold' on M26 and `Braeburn' on Mark and MM111 had the firmest fruit. Overall, trees on M7A and Mark rootstock tended to produce firm fruit. Juice pH was significantly affected by scion-stock combination. In general, `Royal Gala', regardless of rootstock, had the highest juice pH, whereas `Ultra Mac' and `Jon-A-Red' produced the lowest pH. `Blushing Golden' on MM111 and `Royal Gala' on M26 had the highest soluble solids concentration (SSC). Soluble solids concentration of scion cultivars on MM106 did not differ.

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Growth regulators ABA and paclobutrazol were used at different concentrations to induce hardiness in blueberry flower buds and floral parts. Critical freezing temperatures and the effectiveness of the treatments were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), electrolyte leakage, visual browning, and tetrazolium staining. Treatment effects of growth regulators were nonsignificant on whole flower buds, but treatments induced hardiness in floral parts on the second flush of flowers at stage six produced in April. Induction of cold hardiness by ABA and paclobutrazol was concentration dependent. The higher the concentration, the greater the response. Viability test results on each floral part showed a close relationship with the critical freezing temperatures recorded by DTA. Control treatments showed that floral parts at stage six developed in April were more prone to freezing injury compared to floral parts at stage six developed in early March.

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The influence of chemical thinners Accel and ethephon on three apple cultivars Royal Gala, Blushing Gold, and Ultra Gold was investigated. Two experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine the effect of Accel at 0, 25, 50, and 75 ppm and ethephon at 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm on fruit juice SSC, fruit juice sucrose, fruit juice glucose, fruit juice fructose, and fruit set. Accel and ethephon reduced fruit set of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. In 1995, chemical fruit thinners Accel and ethephon increased SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Ultra Gold' and did not affect SSC of `Blushing Golden'. In 1996, Accel and ethephon did not effect the SSC of `Royal Gala' and `Blushing Golden'. However, Accel increased SSC of `Ultra Gold'. Accel and ethephon increased sucrose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Accel increased fruit juice glucose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice glucose concentration of `Royal Gala', `Ultra Gold', and `Blushing Golden'. Accel did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Royal Gala'. However, Accel increased fructose levels of `Ultra Gold' and `Blushing Golden' in 1995. Accel did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Blushing Golden' in 1996. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Royal Gala'. Ethephon increased fruit juice fructose concentration of `Ultra Gold'. Ethephon did not effect fruit juice fructose concentration of `Blushing Golden'.

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