Cones of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala., Santa Rosa Co., Fla., Wayne Co., N.C., Burlington Co., N.J., New London Co., Conn., and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P.], were collected Fall 1994 (Alabama, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Connecticut), Winter 1995 (Massachusetts), or Fall 1995 (Florida). Cones were dried for 2 months, followed by seed extraction and storage at 4°C. Seeds were then graded and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days. Following stratification, seeds were placed at 25°C or an 8/16-hr thermoperiod of 30°/20°C with daily photoperiods of 0, 1, or 24 hr. Germination was recorded every 3 days for 30 days. Temperature, stratification, and light had significant effects on germination. However, responses to these factors varied according to provenance. Averaged over all treatments, the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by the Florida provenance (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, there were specific treatments for each provenance that resulted in germination > 50%. The three southern provenances (Alabama, Florida, and North Carolina) required 30 days of stratification for maximum germination. They did not exhibit an obligate light requirement, but photoperiods ≥ 1 hr increased germination greatly over seeds in darkness. In contrast, the northern provenances (New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts) had an obligate light requirement. These provenances only required 30 days stratification with continuous light for maximum germination. When subjected to a 1-hr photoperiod, seeds from the northern provenances required longer durations of stratification for maximum germination. Regardless of the length of stratification, the New Jersey provenance required a 24-hr photoperiod to maximize germination. When averaged over all treatments, total germination for each provenance was greater at 30°/20°C than 25°C (43% vs. 31%).
Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich
Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich
Seeds of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala.; Santa Rosa Co., Fla.; Wayne Co., N.C.; Burlington Co., N.J.; New London Co., Conn.; and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white-cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days at 4 °C. Following stratification, seeds were germinated at 25 °C or an 8/16-hour thermoperiod of 30/20 °C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0 (total darkness), 1, or 24 hours. The germination of nonstratified seed did not exceed 18%. Seeds germinated at 25 °C required 60 to 90 days stratification to maximize germination. In contrast, 30 days stratification maximized germination at 30/20 °C. Regardless of stratification duration, germination was generally lower at 25 °C than at 30/20 °C for each provenance. Averaged over all treatments, seeds of the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by those from Florida (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, specific treatments for each provenance induced germination >50%. Germination of seeds not exposed to light was <8%, in contrast with 48% and 55% germination for daily photoperiods of 1 and 24 hours, respectively. Seeds from each of the provenances, except for Alabama, exhibited an obligate light requirement when germinated at 25 °C. At 30/20 °C, the North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts provenances required light for germination, whereas the Alabama and Florida provenances did not.
Paul H. Henry and Frank A. Blazich
Two experiments investigated the relationship of light and temperature in seed germination of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.]. Irradiation during the warm portion of 9/15 hr thermoperiod of 20/10C and 30/20C increased germination percentages after 42 days, and the degree of stimulation depended on the timing of the light exposures. A 1-hr exposure was most effective during the latter part of the warm portion of the thermoperiods, and varying the time of irradiation had the greatest effect at 20/10C. The involvement of phytochrome in this photomorphogenic response was ascertained by demonstration of red/far-red reversibility.
Mark C. Starrett, Frank A. Blazich, and Stuart L. Warren
Rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.) seedlings were grown in controlled-environment chambers for 14 weeks under long (9-hour) days at 18, 22, 26, or 30C in factorial combination with 15-hour nights at 14, 18, 22, or 26C. Total dry-matter production was lowest for 18C days and highest for 26C days. A similar response occurred for top, leaf, root, and stem dry weights. Nights at 22C maximized total plant, top, leaf, and stem dry weights. The optimum day/night cycle for dry-matter production was 26/22C. Leaf area was optimum with 18C nights. Leaf weight ratio (leaf dry weight: total plant dry weight) increased with an increase in night temperature to a maximum at 22C. Root weight ratio (root dry weight: total plant dry weight) decreased with an increase in night temperature to a minimum at 22C. Stem weight ratio (stem dry weight: total plant dry weight) and shoot: root ratio (top dry weight: root dry weight) were not influenced significantly by day or night temperature. A day/night cycle of 26/22C seems to be optimal for producing-salable plants.
D. Bradley Rowe, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
Catawba rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense Michx.) seedlings of two provenances, Johnston County, N.C. (35°45′N, 78°12′W, elevation = 67 m), and Yancey County, N.C. (35°45′N, 82°16′W, elevation = 1954 m), were grown in controlled-environment chambers for 18 weeks with days at 18, 22, 26, or 30C in factorial combination with nights at 14, 18, 22, or 26C. Shoot and root dry weights and total leaf areas of seedlings of the Yancey County provenance (high elevation) exceeded (P ≤ 0.05) those of the Johnston County (low elevation) provenance at all temperature combinations. Leaf area was maximal at 22/22C, 18/26C, and 22/26C and minimal at 30/14C (day/night). Shoot dry weight responded similarly. Root dry weight decreased linearly with increasing day temperature, but showed a quadratic response to night temperature. Leaf weight ratio (leaf dry weight: total plant dry weight) increased, while root weight ratio (root dry weight: total plant dry weight) decreased with increasing day temperature. Leaf weight ratio was consistently higher than either stem or root weight ratios. Day/night cycles of 22 to 26/22C appear optimal for seedling growth.
Carole H. Saravitz, Frank A. Blazich, and Henry V. Amerson
Hypocotyl cuttings were prepared from Ii-week-old aseptically grown seedlings of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] and cultured 18 days on media containing 0 to 40 mg IBA/liter followed by transfer to the same medium without auxin. Greatest rooting (66%) occurred after treatment with 20 mg IBA/liter, whereas the greatest number of roots per rooted cutting (7.4) was noted following treatment with 40 mg·liter-1. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Laura G. Jull, Frank A. Blazich, and L.E. Hinesley
Cones of two provenances (Wayne Co., N.C., And Escambia Co., Ala.) of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P.], were collected Fall 1994. Cones were dried for 2 months, followed by seed extraction and storage at 4°C for 6 months. Seeds were graded and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days. Following stratification, seeds were placed at 25°C or 8/16 hour thermoperiods of 25°/15°C or 30°/20°C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h. At the conclusion of a 30-day germination period, the Alabama provenance exhibited greater germination than the North Carolina provenance for all treatments (74% vs. 46%). There were no significant differences between 25°/15°C and 30°/20°C with regard to total percent germination for both provenances. Germination was lowest at 25°C for each provenance. In some cases, however, there were no significant differences in germination of the North Carolina provenance when stratified for 60 or 90 days and germinated at 30/20°C or 25°C (61% vs. 63%). There was a highly significant quadratic response to stratification for cumulative percent germination for both provenances. The North Carolina provenance required 90 days stratification to maximize germination (66%) in contrast to the Alabama provenance, which only needed 30 days (80%). Seeds of both provenances did not exhibit an obligate light requirement. However, photoperiods ≥1/2 h increased germination greatly over seeds in darkness (29% vs. 62%).
Mack Thetford, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
Uniconazole was applied as a foliar spray at 0, 90, 130, 170, or 210 mg·liter-1 to rooted stem cuttings of `Spectabilis' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.) potted in calcined clay. Plants were harvested 0, 40, 80, 120, and 369 days after treatment (DAT). Treatment with uniconazole at 90 to 210 mg·liter suppressed leaf area and dry weight an average of 16% and 18%, respectively, compared to the nontreated controls when averaged over all harvest periods. Stem and root dry weight suppression was greatest at 80 DAT, 47% and 37%, respectively. Uniconazole suppressed root length from 15% to 36% and root area from 15% to 33% depending on harvest date. Internode length and stem diameter of uniconazole-treated plants were suppressed at all harvests except 369 DAT. Uniconazole resulted in increased and decreased root: shoot ratios 40 and 80 DAT, respectively; while root: shoot ratios were not affected for the remainder of the study. Relative growth rates of leaves, stems, and roots decreased with increasing uniconazole concentration; however, no relative growth rates were suppressed beyond 80 DAT. Generally, mineral nutrient concentrations increased as a result of uniconazole application. The proportion of mineral nutrients allocated to leaves and roots was not affected while the proportion of nutrients allocated to stems decreased with uniconazole application compared to the controls. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).
Thomas G. Ranney, Frank A. Blazich, and Stuart L. Warren
Temperature sensitivity of net photosynthesis (PN) was evaluated among four taxa of rhododendron including Rhododendron hyperythrum Hayata, R. russatum Balf. & Forr., and plants from two populations (northern and southern provenances) of R. catawbiense Michx. Measurements were conducted on leaves at temperatures rauging from 15 to 40C. Temperature optima for PN ranged from a low of 20C for R. russatum to a high of 25C for R. hyperythrum. At 40C, PN rates for R. hyperythrum, R. catawbiense (northern provenance), R. catawbiense (southern provenance), and R. russatum were 7.8,5.7,3.5, and 0.2 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively (LSD0.05 = 1.7). Rhododendron catawbiense from the southern provenance did not appear to have greater heat tolerance than plants from the northern provenance. Differences in dark respiration among taxa were related primarily to differences in tissue weight per unit leaf surface area. Temperature coefficients (Q5) for respiration did not vary in temperature response among taxa. Differences in heat tolerance appeared to result from a combination of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations on PN at high temperatures.
Paul H. Henry, Frank A. Blazich, and L. Eric Hinesley
Hardwood stem cuttings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), taken from containerized stock plants fertilized weekly with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, or 640 ppm N, were treated with 7500 ppm IBA and placed under intermittent mist for 12 weeks. Foliar starch and sucrose concentrations within cuttings at time of excision were significantly correlated with percent rooting and root length, respectively. Of the mineral nutrients analyzed (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B), only B and K were significantly correlated with rooting response. A threshold N level (20 ppm), applied weekly, maximized rooting; higher concentrations decreased response. Although N fertilization of stock plants affected adventitious rooting, there were no significant correlations between foliar N levels and measures of rooting response. Chemical name used: 1 H- indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).