In the world horticultural production, the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) contributes with the 47% of the destined area. In Mexico, 10% of the area is cultivated under intensive systems, where is used one or more technologies for obtaining higher productivity and quality; however, the environmental conditions are determinant factors to produce red tomato in the dry tropic, influencing the adaptation and persistence in the market. The aim of this research was to evaluate the adaptation and yield performance of tomato hybrids in fresh production under mulching, fertilization and irrigation. The tomato cultivars used were: `Access', `Centurion', `Bishop', `Dean', and `Yaqui' (control). They were distributed under a Completely randomized blocks design with four replications. The experiment was carried out in Villa de Alvarez, Colima, México. `Yaqui' exhibited the highest plant height 98.8 cm, as web as the highest fruit diameter with 4.61 cm; `Bishop' produced the highest number with 154.5 fruits per plant, followed by `Yaqui', and `Centurion', with 91 fresh fruits. In the variable fruit weight, `Yaqui' showed 93.44 g. In total fresh fruit yield per plant, `Yaqui' produced the highest yield with 8.46 kg, followed by `Bishop' with 4.91 kg; and total yield of 117.5, and 68.2 t·ha-1, respectively. Yaqui' was the genotype with best adaptation and agronomic characteristics. We speculate that environment conditions in field are determinant factors in the introduction of new tomato introductions.
Francisco Radillo Juarez, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Marcelino Bazan Tene, and Luis Fernando Velasco Garcia
In world production of vegetables, the red tomato contributes 47% of the total production and occupies second place in world consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate 13 genotypes of red tomato with high technology for horticultural production in the greenhouse. This study was realized in “Zamora” greenhouses in Quesería-Montitlán, Colima, Mexico. The evaluated materials were: `Sun', D-0289, D-2465, D-2467, D-2475, D-2503, D-2505, D-2512, D-2515, D-2534, D-2541, D-2552, D-7705, and, as control, the `Roman' variety. The tallest height was that of `Roman' plants, 2.46 m, vs. the height of the first cluster of fruits in D-2575 with 51 cm. With respect to largest number of fruits per cluster and total harvested, D-0289 stood out with four and 18 fruits per plant, respectively. In regard to fruit size, the genotypes D-0289 and D-2534 presented the largest equatorial and polar diameter, with 19.2 and 14.2 cm, respectively. For fruit weight, the genotypes `Sun' and D-0289 presented the largest weight with 160 and 151 g, respectively. We conclude that agronomic management influences production under technical systems. For vegetative and productive desirable characteristics, the genotypes `Roman', D-0289, and D-77055 were the more adaptable for production in the greenhouse.
Marcelino Bazan Tene, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Francisco Radillo Juarez, and Pablo Enrique Ramírez Castillo
The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), is native to South America. It occupies the second place in worldwide vegetable consumption. Because of this, the evaluation of tomato varieties for the fresh consumption is important. The Mexican production is 1,908,607 tons of fresh product (SAGARPA, 2004). In the state of Colima, production has a mean efficiency of 18.13 t·ha-1 (INEGI, 2000). The following genotypes were evaluated `Peralta', `Montijo', Pavia', `Grande River', and `Yaqui' (control). A randomized experimental block was used, with five treatments and four repetitions. The obtained results indicate that `Yaqui' (control) had the better yield of fresh fruit, with 37.5 t·ha-1, followed by `Peralta' (27.2t·ha-1), and `Montijo' (12.6 t·ha-1), respectively. The height of plant in `Yaqui' was 68.8 cm and 60.26 cm in `Pavia'. In the days to flowering, after showing a homogenous behavior, pronouncing itself up to 27 days after the transplant; whereas the variety `Grande River' was pronounced up to 40 days. With respect to the number of total fruits by plant, a highly significant difference was observed. `Yaqui' produced 91 fruits, with `Pavia' and `Peralta' producing 50 and 37 fruits per plant, respectively. In conclusion, `Yaqui' was the genotype with greater yield and vigor.
Juan Manuel González-González*, Marcelino Bazán-Tene, Francisco Radillo-Juárez, and Jaime Molina-Ochoa
Plants in the genus Ficus are one of the most used in the ornamentals. it is also used for plant handcrafting such as braid, cylinders, and wall rockets, using a single plant or braiding some plants. The ficus are commonly asexually propagated by slip or shoots. There is the possibility to graft and to obtain plants with two levels of foliage, combining the color and texture. The objective of this research was to evaluate the grafting compatibility of varieties of Ficus benjamina, such as: Vivian, Winter green, and Antillean (green color) grafted on the variety Profit (white color) used as rootstock. The study was carried out under environmental conditions of the Mexican Dry Tropic in Tecomán, Colima, Mexico. The grafting method was by whip or tongue approximation. Bud sticks of the four varieties ≈70-cm long were used as scions. They were previously rooted in polyethylene bags containing 1.5 kg of coconut fiber used as rooting substrate. The rootstocks were grown long in soil until 1.5 m and when they reach similar diameter to the scions. The grafting height and diameter was ≈50-60 cm, and 2-2.6 cm, respectively. Five grafted plants were used as experimental unit, and the treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with four replications. The variables estimated were: number of leaves after 28 and 35 days post-grafting, and percentage of grafting at 28 and 35 days post-grafting. The tree varieties were compatible with the rootstock, and no differences were obtained between the treatments (Tukey test P< 0.05); both three varieties exhibited 75% of grafting success, and `Antillean' had higher number of leaves, but the three varieties were statistically similar.
Francisco Radillo Juarez, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Marcelino Bazan Tene, and J. Hyvan Castañeda Alvarez
Vegetables are important in Mexican agriculture because of the exportation opportunities made available by the opening of the Free Trade Agreement. Okra represents a potentially profitable crop, and it is important to understand its behavior in a predetermined environment, and determine its optimal sowing density. The present work was realized to evaluate three genotypes and three densities of okra plants in the production and quality of fresh fruit. The work was realized in the winter–spring cycle in the dry tropic region, using a randomized block design with a bifactorial of nine treatments. During the cultivation cycle, the vegetative and productive variables did not present changes in phenology, and only registered differences in plant height (58.4 and 57.6 cm., respectively) of PX 416543 and `Green Best', with a distance between plants of 18 cm. These results indicate that with increased densities of 41,600, 50,000, and 69,444 plants/ha, there were no differences in the number and weight of fresh fruit/plant. Nevertheless, with the production and support the quality of fresh fruit increased. We conclude that high densities of plants increase the total crop of fresh fruit per hectare without affecting quality. The variety PX 416543 presented the best vegetative and productive behavior.
Francisco Radillo-Juárez*, Marcelino Bazán-Tene, Jaime Molina-Ochoa, and Edgar Damián Rolón-Vejar
The production of `Jalapeño' hot pepper has been increased in the last 10 years in about 6.21% during the period between 1992-2003, with a growing rate of 72%. In Mexico, is an important produce, because it is considered part of the traditional Mexican diet as well as its high productive level. One of the most frequent problems in this crop is the low production of fresh fruits caused by an inadequate fertilization. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four fertilization formulas on the yield of fresh fruit of hot pepper variety Jalapeño cultivar Grande under irrigation conditions The evaluated formulas were (N-P-K-S): 1) 58-51-35-12 (control); 2) 78-68-46-16; 3) 97-85-58-20; and 4) 117-102-69-24. Treatments were distributed under a completely randomized block design with four replications. The formula 117-102-69-24 showed the highest values in the plant height and number of fruits with 62.5 cm, and 48 fruits, respectively. This formula also showed the highest values on equatorial and longitudinal diameters, and fruit weight with 3.36 cm, 11.26 cm, and 33.66 g, respectively. The total yields per plant and per hectare was 1.54 kg; and 38.22 t was obtained with the formula 117-102-69-24. The formula with the higher units of each element showed the best performance and exhibited the highest yield of fresh hot pepper, it was more productive than the control treatment commonly used by the hot pepper growers in Colima.
Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Francisco Radillo Juarez, Marcelino Bazan Tene, and Juan Carlos González Ramos
Soursop (Annonamuricata L.) is reproduced by seeds from `Criollo' cultivars in Mexico. The replication of desirable agronomic traits is difficult when selected plants are from sexual reproduction. The heterogeneity of plants is observed as taller trees, irregular fresh fruit yield, variable fruit quality, different insect pests, disease susceptibilities, and lower number of plants per hectare. There is an extended time period for recovering investments and commericialization problems due to fruit quality and price. Vegetative propagation is an alternative for reducing the heterogeneity of soursop trees. Three grafting methods were evaluated for propagating soursop in the dry tropic region of Colima, Mexico: 1) splice side graft; 2) wedge graft; and 3) bud graft. The experiment was carried out on the Tecoman Campus of the Universidad de Colima. Rootstocks were from 8-month-old healthy plants, 1-m tall and 1-cm diameter, obtained from `Criollo' seedlings, and the scions were obtained from a healthy 10-year-old `Sin Fibra' donor tree. This donor tree was selected for its excellent agronomic traits and fruit yield. Vigorous and terminal scions were used, disinfected with fungicide, and used the same day of excision. The experiment was distributed under a completely randomized design. Splice side grafting had 67% success after 60 days, while wedge grafting and bud grafting had 0% success.
Marcelino Bazan Tene, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Francisco Radillo Juarez, Jorge Pahul Covarrubias Corner, and Salvador Guzman Gonzalez
The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a plant domesticated in Mesoamerica. Hot pepper is currently widespread worldwide, and its uses are varied, such as for flavoring, pigment base, and as a nutritional food resource. Mexico produces about 623,238 tons/year of fresh fruits in 136,398 ha; the State of Colima produced 17,181 tons in 676 ha, with a mean of 27 t·ha-1. The culture of hot pepper in Colima faces certain limitations to its productive potential, such as lack of fertile and well-drained soils, constant soil moisture, and being free of weeds during the first weeks after transplanting; and maintaining plant uniformity in transplantation. This last practice is carried out in the side bed, but there is a lack of scientific evidence about the requirements of luminosity in the seed nursery in order to accelerate improvement of plant quality for transplanting, and the impact on fruit yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on germination and vegetative development of `Jalapeño' hot pepper under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of luminosity were evaluated using mesh fabrics in order to produce 90%, 75%, and 50% shade, and control (0%) without shading on the seed beds. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The shading treatments reduced the germination period in about 2 days; increased the percentage of germination with a range between 1.6% and 3.7%; increased the plant height 2.3, 4.8, 7.72, and 10.1 cm at 3, 7, 13, and 18 days postemergence; increased the root biomass about 7.1 g/plant, and 5.4 g of fresh foliage with the 90% shade treatment in comparison with control. Overall, a better agronomic performance of the `Jalapeño' hot pepper was obtained with 90% shading.
Marcelino Bazán Tene, Javier Farías Larios, José Gerardo López Aguirre, Francisco Radillo Juárez, and Jorge Rogelio Flores Sánchez
Production of horticultural crops is important throughout the world, with high consumption mainly in Europe and the United States of America. Cucumber is consumed both fresh and processed. This vegetable generates important profits for producing countries such as Mexico, which, in 2003, produced 435,897 tons of fresh fruit with a value of 1.190 million Mexican pesos (around USD $109 million). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the floating cover on the yield of fresh cucumbers. Four treatments and five repetitions were imposed in a randomized distribution: covered 20 days (C20) post-emergence, covered until beginning of flowering (CF), covered until beginning of harvest (CIC), and without cover (SC). Data at the first and fourth harvest were analyzed. Results showed that, in the first harvest, treatment C20 days was highest in fruit yield (3.11 ton/ha); Treatment CIC had 2.47 ton/ha, and SC produced 1.66 ton/ha. Data obtained in the fourth harvest, treatment C20, had the highest yield, with 24.12 ton/ha, and treatment CF had a yield of 21.11 ton/ha, but there was not significant difference (Tukey's P < 0.05).
Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Salvador Guzman Gonzalez, Arnoldo Michel Rosales, Francisco Radillo Juarez, Marcelino Bazan Tene, and Fernando Cervantes T.
The most common spread of this species is sexual or by seed. In normal conditions, the germination of the seeds of Anonaceae can increase with pregerminative treatments prior to sowing. The objective was to determine the best pregerminative treatment to increase germination of soursop seeds. This study was carried out under the the dry, tropic conditions of Tecomán, Colima, Mexico. The experimental design was completely random with 12 treatments: 1) dip in water for 24 hours; 2) dip in water for 24 hours + gibberellic acid (GA3) at 350 ppm; 3) dip in water for 24 hours + GA3 at 500 ppm; 4) dip in water for 24 hours + GA3 at 1000 ppm; 5) mechanical scarification; 6) dip in water for 24 hours + mechanical scarification; 7) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 350 ppm; 8) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 500 ppm; 9) mechanical scarification + GA3 at 1000 ppm; 10) GA3 at 350 ppm; 11) GA3 at 500 ppm; and 12) GA3 at 1000 ppm; and control. There were four repetitions with 10 seeds in each experimental unit. The evaluated variables were the percentage of germination and the number of days from planting to emergence. To record results, analysis of variance and Tukey's test averages were used. The major percentage of germination resulted from the seeds treated with soaking in water for 24 hours plus GA3 to 350 ppm, dip in water for 24 hours plus scarification and GA3 at 1000 ppm, and equalized statistically to the control. For the number of days from planting to emergence, the treatment with mechanical scarification + GA3 at 500 ppm was statistically better. The use of gibberellic acid with mechanical scarification diminishes the dormancy of soursop seeds, producing plants in a relatively short period.