The objective of this work was to compare the contents of cyanidin glycosides and quercetin glycosides in the skin of apples grown with or without hail nets and using reflective foil or not. Under hail nets, photosynthetically active radiation was 10% to 30% lower in comparison with the control treatment. Covering the orchard floor with reflective foil had a positive effect on lighting, particularly on the lower parts of the fruit. Fruit coloration depends on the contents of anthocyanins copigmented with flavonols, the synthesis of which is light-dependent. The content of the main cyanidin glycoside in ‘Fuji’ apple, cyanidin galactoside, was lowest in the control treatment as well as concentrations of cyanidin arabinoside and two other cyanidin pentosides. Reflective foil caused a higher cyanidin glycoside content. Among flavonols, quercetin galactoside, quercetin glucoside, quercetin pentoside, quercetin arabinofuranoside, quercetin xyloside, quercetin rutinoside, quercetin rhamnoside, and quercetin were detected. Hail net and reflective foil both affected the increasing quercetin–glycosides contents. The highest amounts were achieved in the treatment under the hail net, where the orchard floor was covered with reflective foil. We also analyzed catechin, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The lowest amounts of these were measured in the skin of fruit grown on trees under hail nets. In the control treatment, contents of those phenolic compounds were equal or higher, whereas the highest concentrations were detected in the treatments using reflective foil, where lighting was also higher in comparison with the treatments without it.
The influence of two exogenously applied auxins (IAA and IBA) on the root and shoot development of leafy cuttings was analyzed at 'GiSelA 5', the dwarfing cherry rootstock. IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) hindered the callus formation in the early period of root development and it was more successful than IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) in promoting earlier root development. IBA also influenced the stronger shoot growth and the development of acrobasal type of the rooting system, and induced higher number of roots. Those parameters are very important for the quality and survival of the new plants and they are not the consequence of the higher IAA content in the rooting zones of cuttings in the first days of root development. Both auxin treatments had no effect on the final percent of the rooted cuttings neither on the survival of cuttings, but they increased the percent of rooted cuttings without callus. The root system with callus proved less qualitative, because the cuttings with such root system developed significantly less roots per rooted cutting and their shoot length was shorter than those of the cuttings without callus at both auxin treatments. Exogenously applied auxins were not crucial for root formation, however their application resulted in higher percent of more qualitative 'GiSelA 5' leafy cuttings. IBA proved as the most efficient treatment and it additionally induced earlier root formation.
Three cultivars and three selections from Oregon State University's (OSU) hazelnut (Corylus avellana) breeding program were investigated in a yield trial during the period 1997 to 2007 in northeastern Slovenia with the Italian ‘Tonda Gentile delle Langhe’ as the standard. All OSU genotypes had higher cumulative yield and yield efficiency than the standard, all exceeded the kernel percentage of 45%, and all had at least 76% good kernels. OSU 228.084 is promising due to good vegetative growth and the highest yields and yield efficiency. It set many catkins and had the highest percentage of marketable kernels. Its disadvantage could be early flowering and large yield reduction due to low temperatures in early spring. Cultivars/selections that were late flowering (‘Lewis’ and OSU 244.001) had longer durations of pistillate flower receptivity (‘Willamette’ and OSU 238.125) and had lower sensitivity to unfavorable weather conditions in early spring (‘Clark’) expressed the best climatic adaptation. Unmarketable nuts were mainly blanks and poorly filled nuts. ‘Clark’ is precocious early maturing, and well-suited to the kernel market. Due to its upright growth habit, ‘Clark’ could be planted more densely than others. ‘Lewis’ yielded well and had medium yield efficiency, and is suitable for in-shell and kernel markets. Excellent pellicle removal was observed in OSU 244.001 and OSU 238.125. All OSU cultivars and selections showed relatively low susceptibility to hazelnut weevil (Balaninus nucum).
Prohexadione-calcium (ProCa), formulated as Regalis, was tested as a vegetative growth inhibitor in rejuvenated annual shoots of 14-year-old mother trees in the ‘Franquette’ walnut cultivar. ProCa was applied three times during growing seasons in 2005 (Y5) and 2006 (Y6). This was during the second half of spring growth flush, the resting phase between the first and second growth flushes, and in the middle of summer growth flush. As a result, treated shoots in the upper part of the canopy were shorter than untreated ones during the whole growing season in both years. In Y5, two treatments of ProCa (250 mg·L−1), applied until the middle of June, inhibited shoot elongation during summer growth, which was the main purpose of the experiment. The reduction of shoot elongation was between 18% [lower shoots in the canopy (LS)] and 33% [upper shoots (US)]. After three ProCa applications, also the final length of the shoots was reduced by 5% (US) and 18% (LS). In Y6, when 100 mg·L−1 of ProCa had been used, strong reduction (24%) was observed only in US after two treatments. Summer growth was not reduced, probably as a result of an interaction between lower concentration of ProCa and stress caused by a water deficit and extremely high temperatures during the summer. On the base of the shoots, three treatments of ProCa (100 mg·L−1) in Y6 increased the ratio between wood and pith and, consequently, increased the quality and uniformity of the scion wood. Further research into additional cultivars and ProCa concentrations is recommended to optimize the terms of application.
The concentration of major anthocyanins, quercetins, catechin, and phenolic acids during flower development of Rosa ×hybrida L. ‘KORcrisett’ was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Additionally, the changes in petal color were monitored colorimetrically at four different stages of development (bud, partially open flowers, fully open flowers, senescent flowers) and correlation was calculated between the chromaticity parameters and major/total anthocyanins. Color parameters a*, b*, and h° decreased with the progression of flower development and a*/b* ratio and lightness (L*) increased. In rose petals, a negative trend in the content of major (pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside) and minor (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside) anthocyanins was observed during flower development. Buds contained almost threefold higher concentrations of pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside and fourfold higher concentrations of cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside than senescent flowers. Buds also contained significantly more quercetins (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside), catechin, and phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid) than flowers of subsequent developmental stages. The most significant differences were observed in the content of gallic acid; buds contained almost sixfold higher values than senescent flowers. Correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between chromaticity parameters a*, b*, a*/b* ratio, h°, L*, and major/total anthocyanins with values ranging from 0.60 to –0.84.
In the present study, the chemical and morphological status of eight cultivars of groundcover rose (Rosa ×hybrida) with a range of flower colors was investigated. From the methanolic extracts of rose petals collected from flowers at four developmental stages, several phenolic compounds were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, including five anthocyanins, which are especially important for the visual attributes of rose flowers. Colorimetric parameters were also measured and correlated with total anthocyanins and cell sap pH levels. During flower development from bud to senescent stage, a significant trend was detected; lightness (L*) increased, b* decreased in all analyzed roses, and a* decreased in pink and red cultivars. Cell sap pH level increased from bud to senescent petals; fresh weight, dry weight, and water content increased to fully open stage and were then reduced in senescent petals. Total anthocyanin and quercetin content increased from bud stage to fully open flowers, and was decreased in senescent ones. However, the highest content of total phenolics was measured in buds and partially opened flowers, respectively. Three distinct groups were formed according to the content of total anthocyanins and quercetins; white cultivars were most distant from the red ones, which were similar to the pink and light red cultivars.
Detailed anthocyanin and flavonol profiles were investigated in three flower segments of four different hybrid primrose (Primula ×polyantha) cultivars, and individual compounds were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/mass spectrometry system. Chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoids were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the corolla tube (CT), and distal and proximal flower segments, and the color of each segment was assessed with a colorimeter. Chlorophyll b predominated over chlorophyll a in all flower segments, and the highest total chlorophyll levels were found in the CTs. Sixteen different anthocyanins (glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, malvidin, and rosinidin) were identified in red, pink, and blue flower extracts. Distal segments of the red hybrid and proximal segments of the pink hybrid accumulated highest levels of total anthocyanins, and no red pigments were detected in yellow-flowered hybrid primrose. Six groups of flavonols (40 individual compounds in total) were detected in different flower segments of four hybrid primrose cultivars. Yellow primrose was characterized by the greatest diversity of flavonols as it contained four isorhamnetin, five kaempferol, six laricitrin, three myricetin, six quercetin, and six syringetin glycosides. On the other hand, the smallest variety of flavonols was detected in pink hybrids. Total phenolic content (TPC) was lowest in the CT (yellow > red > pink), significantly higher in the proximal flower segment (yellow > red > pink), and highest in the distal part of the primrose petal (yellow > pink > red).
Using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, leaf and petal phenolic profiles of four rose (Rosa) species (R. canina, R. glauca, R. rubiginosa, R. sempervirens) traditionally used for medicinal purposes and three modern rose cultivars (Rosarium Uetersen, Ulrich Brunner Fils, Schwanensee) were determined. An abundance of phenolic constituents was identified: seven different anthocyanins and 31 flavonols in petals; 30 flavonols, 14 phenolic acids, and their derivatives; 15 flavanols; and 20 hydrolysable tannins in leaves. Additionally, petal color was measured with a colorimeter and regression analysis indicated a strong correlation between color parameter a* and total anthocyanin content. The content and composition of phenolic compounds varied significantly among species and cultivars and plant organs investigated. Distinct differences in the distribution of leaf phenolic compounds were observed, especially between Rosa species and modern rose cultivars. In general, leaves of analyzed species were richer in content of most phenolic groups and individual components compared with cultivars. Multivariate statistical analysis clustered the investigated species and cultivars into three distinct groups. Among species, leaves of R. canina stood out with their high and varied phenolic content. Conversely, leaves of the susceptible cultivar Schwanensee appeared most dissimilar as a result of their low levels of phenolic constituents.
Common cyclamen (Cyclamen pururascens Mill.) is a very interesting species not only for various breeding programs but also as an ornamental plant. The plants possess interesting floral and foliage characteristics, nice fragrances, and a very useful flavonol profile. The last is very important from the point of view of protecting against diseases and physiological disorders. Twenty-two different genotypes originating from different regions in Slovenia were analyzed in detail, based on their floral and foliage characteristics. Anthocyanin and flavonol contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (MS). Color characteristics were colorimetrically evaluated separately for petals and leaves. In terms of color measurements, significant differences among the sites of origin were shown with parameters a* and L* when petals were analyzed, and with parameter a* when leaves were analyzed. The pH of petal sap stayed within the acid range, ranging from 3.96 to 4.82. Five different anthocyanins (malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, and delphinidine-3-rutinoside) were analyzed in flowers, and this is the first report of delphinidin metabolites naturally present in common cyclamen genotypes. In relation to plant leaves, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, and peonidin-3-neohesperidoside were measured. Fifteen different flavonols were determined in common cyclamen flowers and 10 different flavonols in common cyclamen leaves. Various glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were analyzed, as well as isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside, laricitin-3-rutinoside, and neohesperidin. The floral and foliage characteristics of the genotypes (physical and chemical) were mainly affected by the environmental conditions of the locality of origin of the genotypes (annual disposition of temperature and precipitation, structure of the soil, etc.).