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- Author or Editor: Felipe Castillo x
To induce somatic embryogenesis in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), the cultivar BVll-03, belonging to the red type, was used. Different explants were evaluated, as were different culture media, the composition of which varied in the content of plant growth regulators. Results showed the formation of somatic embryos from cotyledons, zygotic embryos, germinated zygotic embryos, hypocotyls, and cotyledonary leaves. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-D (9.05 μm). The somatic embryos always formed directly from the explant, without callus formation, and the greatest efficiency was obtained when segments of hypocotyls were cultured, obtaining 175 ± 20 somatic embryos per explant. Only the somatic embryos obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2,4-D (9.05 μm) and treated with abscisic acid (ABA) (1.89 μm) before their transfer to the germination media (Murashige and Skoog + 1.1 μm GA3) emitted their radicule and expanded their cotyledonary leaves (60%), whereas the remaining embryos did not achieve germination because of different causes (abnormalities, delayed development). Not only is this protocol of somatic embryogenesis the first to be reported for this species (C. chinense Jacq.), but it is also the most efficient reported so far, within the Capsicum genus.
To induce the somatic embryogenesis of Habanero pepper, different culture media and different types of explants (node, internode, hypocotyl, half seeds, and fruit segments) were evaluated. For the induction of embryogenic callus, 9.05 μm of 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacetic acid, 3% sucrose, and 0.8% gelrite were added to the basic MS medium over a period of 30 days at 25 ± 2 °C under continuous light (40–50 μmol·m2·s−1). Once the callus formed, they were transferred to liquid medium using the same induction formulation. Somatic embryogenesis only occurred from explants of hypocotyl and in the presence of 3.4 μm thidiazuron. This constitutes the first proposal of a protocol for the “induction of somatic embryogenesis in Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) from cell suspensions.”
In semiarid apple (Malus domestica) growing regions, high temperatures and excessive solar radiation can increase the risk of sunburn development. Protective netting is increasingly used as a cultural practice under these conditions to mitigate fruit sunburn losses. However, fruit skin color development can be negatively affected under protective nets due to the reduction in light availability. Reflective groundcovers have been previously reported to increase fruit color development, particularly in the inner parts of the tree canopy. Here, we compared two types of reflective groundcover: a woven polyethylene fabric and a film material with a grassed control without reflective material under a protective netting installation that reduced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by 17%. The experiment was conducted in a semiarid climate on a 5-year-old ‘Cameron Select Honeycrisp’ apple orchard near Quincy, WA. Light penetration into the canopy was measured with a PAR sensor. At harvest, fruit quality, yield, and size were assessed. The use of reflective groundcover between the rows significantly increased reflected PAR into the lower canopy. Moreover, reflective groundcovers significantly increased the amount of fruit with greater than 25% skin red color compared with the control. Reflective groundcover did not affect fruit weight, yield, and fruit number. The use of reflective groundcover under protective netting can increase light penetration into the canopy, thereby improving fruit skin red coloration in apple.
To induce multiple shoots from habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.), nodes and stem segments were cultivated in MS medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kinetin, benzyladenine, and thidiazuron. The effect of the age of the explant in the medium on shoot formation and their latter development into plants was assessed. Ethylene concentration was measured along the experiments. Thidiazuron was the key growth regulator in the process, which at 3.4 μm induced seven to eight shoots that developed into healthy plants per explant. Plantlets in nonventilated vessels, where ethylene concentration was 0.25 ± 0.1102 μL·L–1, showed early defoliation and the formation of calli on the leaves and stems.