Sexual reproduction in the plant parasite Phytophthora capsici Leonian requires the interaction of two distinct mating types, A1 and A2. Co-occurrence of these mating types can enhance the genetic diversity of P. capsici and alter its virulence or resistance characteristics. Using an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) screen of microsatellite diversity, we identified, cloned, and sequenced a novel 1121-base pair (bp) fragment specific to the A1 mating type of P. capsici. Primers Pcap-1 and Pcap-2 were designed from this DNA fragment to specifically detect the A1 mating type. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using these primers amplified an expected 997-bp fragment from known A1 mating types, but yielded a 508-bp fragment from known A2 mating types. This PCR-based assay could be adapted to accurately and rapidly detect the co-occurrence of A1 and A2 P. capsici mating types from field material.