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Fabián Robles-Contreras and Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras

In the Caborca area, water scarcity is the main problem for the farmers, because of the depletion of the aquifer. This is the main reason why they are focusing on orchards and vegetables. Melon is the vegetable annual crop more extensively grown in this area and is furrow-irrigated with 120 cm of water. But, because of the scarcity of water, it is necessary to use drip irrigation. The objective of this study was to validate in a commercial field (15 ha) the effects of drip irrigation system on the water use, yield, and quality of two honeydew melon varieties (green flesh and orange flesh) in the Caborca area. Our results indicate that, with 50 cm of water applied, yields were 2146 to 2802 boxes/ha for green flesh and orange flesh, respectively. The predominant sizes were 4s and 5s with 25% and 38% for green flesh, and 5s and 6s with 42% and 36% for orange flesh. These sizes are the best for the exportation market.

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Arturo Lopez-Carvajal, R. Leonel Grijalva-Contreras, and Fabian Robles-Contreras

Asparagus growers in the Caborca, Sonora, area consider disulfoton the only efficient insecticide for the control of the European asparagus aphid (EAA); therefore, this is the only insecticide used to control this pest. However, it is prohibited in Mexico. Therefore, during Fall 1991 in a commercial plantation of asparagus, six conventional and one microbial insecticides were evaluated. All the insecticides: chlorpirifos (480 g a.i./ha), dimethoate (400 g), malathion (2000 g), pirimicarb (375 g), oxamil (480 g), disulfoton (1000 g), and two doses of the fungus Verticillium lecanii (300 and 600 g) had a significant control (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the untreated check. However, chlorpirifos, malathion, disulfoton, and Verticillium (600 g) were more consistent, fast-acting, and registered from 90% to 100% control of the EAA for at least 51 days after application; 73 days after the application, control ranged from 16% to 57%, except oxamil, which registered 71% control.

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Fabian Robles-Contreras, Adan Fimbres-Fontes, and Arturo Lopez-Carvajal

Grapes are the most extensively grown crop in the agricultural area of Caborca, Sonora, Mexico (14,000 ha), and water availability is the main limitation of the crop production system. Commonly, grapevines are irrigated with 150–200 cm of water/year. Therefore, it is important to make efficient use of this resource. To demonstrate that the crop criterion (CC) to irrigate is adequate to decrease the water-use efficient, the growers criteria was compared with CC during 1990 and 1991 in a commercial plot of `Thompson Seedless' grapes for wine production grown in a drip-irrigated system. The CC used was: 7.5%, 15.0%, 52.0%, 80.0%, 30.0%, and 7.5% at budbreak state (0–20 days), shoot elongation (21–40 days), fruit set (41–60 days), first harvest (61 days to harvest), during harvest (until 130 days), and postharvest (130–240 days), respectively. Our results indicate that water consumption using CC is 90 cm/year vs. 147–187 cm/year with growers criteria, the use of which did not affect yield.

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Fabian Robles-Contreras, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, and Ruben Macias-Duarte

Sabila is a plant that by his multiple applications in the medicine as in the naturist feeding and the cosmetics industry is taking a lot of importance at world-wide level. In addition, this is a crop that requires little amount of water to be developed satisfactorily, for this reason this crop is a good alternative to cultivate in the agricultural areas of the sonoran desert. The objective of this study was to determine the viability to produce sabila in the sonoran desert. During Summer 2002, two experiments of sabila was conducted, and distributed on two agricultural areas of the sonoran desert: The first experiment was carried out in two location of the agricultural region of Sonoyta, Sonora, Mexico, (“The Nariz” and “The Papago” farm). The second experiment was carried out in two lacation of the agricultural region of Caborca, Sonora, Mexico, (“The Bizani” and “The Coast” area) being the less cold area. During the first year we evaluated the surviving plants and the sprout emission. The result indicated that the plant in the Sonoyta region is more affected for the winter frosts, and it is reflected in a smaller average of surviving plants, being this of 78.6% and 97.8% in Sonoyta and Caborca respectively. Also we observed an effect in the percentage of plants that present sprout emission, being this of 11.25% and 23.65% in Sonoyta and Caborca respectively. Apparently the agricultural area of caborca has suitable condition for Sabila production.

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Ruben Macias-Duarte, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, and Fabian Robles-Contreras

The producers areas of onion in Mexico, are affected by the existence and increment of pathogens organisms of the soil like the fungus Pyrenochaeta terrestris, This problem increased its presence and damages due to the consecutive establishment of this vegetable year with year on the same soils. The fungus is activated and this disease developed when the soil temperature is increased. The disease infection of the plants causes rot and death of roots and small bulbs whit no commercial value, and low yields. According that the objective of the present research was to evaluate three treatments for the control of this organism pathogen: The experiment was carried out on INIFAP-CIRNO Experimental Station on a severally infested soil whit this fungus. The sow date was on 6 Jan. 2002, in this trial we used “local” variety. The treatments evaluated were Trichoderma (30 L·ha-1), Humega 8% (180 L·ha-1), Isofert 25 (400 L·ha-1) and a control (without treatment). The products were applied using the drip irrigation system. The results indicate that the treatments with Trichoderma and Humega 8% presented the lower percent of disease roots with 33% and those of more incidence were the control and Isofert 25 with 46% and 47% of disease roots, respectively. The results show 13% efficiency with the use of Trichoderma with respect to control; however this treatment did not affect the bulb weight and yield, control treatment obtained the greatest bulb weight and yield with 212 g for bulb and 80.9 t·ha-1 against 196 g and 71.9 t·ha-1, respectively, of the Trichoderma, which was seemingly a secondary negative effect in decrement the yield.

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Ruben Macias-Duarte, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, and Fabian Robles-Contreras

The onion bulb production In Mexico is about 39,000 ha annually. Yield is variable according to the technological capacity and economic condition of the grower. However, The technology adoption (new varieties, efficient irrigation system and establishment methods) is increased during the last years. Traditionally in Mexico the grower use the manual transplant of seedling, that which increases the cost and time of this labor. The objective of the present Experiment was to evaluate Two establishment methods (direct seed and transplant seedling) and the effect on 24 bulb varieties. The evaluation was carried out in INIFAP-CIRNO Experimental Station in furrows with 1.00 m of separation among them, with double row of plants, the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus used were 180 and 80 kg·ha-1 respectively, we used the drip irrigation system. In this experiment we observed that the system of direct seed obtained better yield (18%), bulb weight (21%) and precocity (11 days) in comparing to the transplant methods, however in the first treatment the floral stem emission was greater (6.7% vs 1.1%) of the transplant methods. The white varieties with high yield were: White onion 214 and Cal 128 with 71.4 and 65.7 ton/ha. The purple varieties was F1 Cal 192 with 68.3 t·ha-1 and the yellow varieties was Ringer Cal 160 with 63.2 t·ha-1.

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Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Ruben Macias-Duarte, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, and Fabian Robles-Contreras

Production of high value crops in greenhouse in the Northwest of Mexico is an efficient way to achieve high yield, and high quality and the some time vegetables with less pesticide residue. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of three different plant densities (1.89, 2.50, and 3.78 plants/m2) on yield and fruit quality on tomatoes. This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Station (INIFAP-CIRNO) inside polyethylene greenhouse. In this Trial we used soil medium and the variety used was `Matrix'. The date seedling establishment was on 26 Jan. 2003. Plant density did have an effect on yield, but did not affect the fruit size. Yield per square meter had a linear response a plant density. The yield obtained were 21.8, 16.1 and 14.7 kg/m2 using 3.78, 2.50 and 1.89 plants/m2, respectively. Weight fruit varied from 200.4 to 247.6 g/fruit for all densities. Also the density not affected the fruit color. None of the treatments evaluated had problems of insect pest and disease.

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Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Ruben Macias-Duarte, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, and Fabian Robles-Contreras

The production of vegetables in Mexico under greenhouse conditions has been increased notably during the last years. Actually the area is about 1,250 ha. Tomatoes is the vegetables more important with 70%. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate ten beef tomatoes varieties growing on soil medium and to choice those with high yield, fruit quality and disease resistant. The experiment was carried out on the Experimental Station (INIFAP-CIRNO) inside Polyethylene greenhouse. The soil characteristics are clay loam texture, electrical conductivity (1.22 ds·m-1 and Ph 7.96). The date seedling establishment on 25 Oct. 2003 (28 days after sow seed). The plant density used was of 3.78 plants per square meter. The harvest period occurred from 20 feb. Feb. 20 to 27 May and they were carried out an average of sixteen cutting. There were nonsignificant differences in yield and weight fruit among varieties. Yield varied from 26.2 and 19.2 kg·m-2. The varieties with more yield were Clarion, GC-29125, Attention, Thomas and Charleston with 26.2, 24.7, 24.4, 24.2 and 21.5 kg·m-2, respectively. Fruit weight varied from 96.5 to 174.0 grams per fruit. The important insect pests in this year were Leaf Miner (Lyriomyza sp.); Army worm (Heliothis op.) and white fly (Bemissia sp.) however, we have not recorded any important disease during this trial.

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Fabian Robles-Contreras, Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, and Ruben Macias-Duarte

The grape crop is important in Sonora State, Mexico, even though the grape growers have some problems that put in risk its continuity. To decide the moment of pruning time is one of the important decisions that the grower must done, because that depends partly the moment and the magnitude the budbreak appeared. The objective of this study was to determine the pruning time using the Effective Chilling Hours (ECH) obtained from the climatologic station. In a commercial lot of the Superior Seedless variety, we studied the effects of pruning at different times depending on the accumulation of ECH (150, 200, 250, 350, and 400). The ECH was calculated by adding the hours that the temperature stayed in following rank 0 °C < X < 10 °C, reducing the hours when the temperature was greater or equal to 25 °C. The data used to calculate this were obtained from the two climatologic stations near the lot in study. The effect in the budbreak was studied in canes and spurs. The results obtained in this study show that the final budbreak in canes as in spurs were not affected by the treatments in study and it was 76.5% and 81.8% for canes and spurs respectively. There is a direct relation (R 2 = 0.94) between the ECH at pruning time and the percentage of early budbreak in the canes—from 5.6% (150 ECH) to 54.1% (400 ECH). Whereas in spurs, the early budbreak was favored when pruning is done after at least 200 ECH.

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Manuel de Jesus Valenzuela-Ruiz, Raul Leonel Grijalva-Contreras*, Fabian Robles-Contreras, and Ruben Macias-Duarte

The Caborca, Sonora, region, is the main producing zone of raisins grape in Mexico, with a surface of 5000 ha. Nevertheless although that produce raisins of excellent quality, it is frequent that during the drying time, some rain ocurre and cause loses in yield up to a 30% and the quality is affected. The objective of this study was the evaluation of several chemical disecantes agents to reduce the drying time of the raisins grape. This study was carry in the INIFAP Caborca. We evaluate eleven treatments containing diferent concentrations of Metil Oleate, Potassium Carbonate, Potassium Sorbate and combinations of these products, a mesh and the control were included, these applications were made immediately after cut the grape, once it was tended on the bed. The results indicate that the best treatment were the mixture made from Metil Oleate plus Potassium Carbonate at 4% both products followed by the same mixture at 2%, those treatments reduced the drying time in a 50% and 35 % respecively. When using the mesh the drying time was extend, it need 4 days more than the control, since its total time of drying was 21 days. It is important to note that the treatments that contain the mixture of metil oleate and potassium carbonate and the mesh not presented rotting problems, during the drying stage.