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A. M. Rhodes and F. W. Martin

Abstract

Two multivariate techniques, cluster analysis and principal components with varimax rotation, were applied to a model consisting of 100 characters and 30 cultivars of yams. Cluster analysis indicated 3 major groups of cultivars. Varimax solution indicated that the first component was highly loaded with anthocyanin characters; the second component with spiny vines and small tubers with long necks; and the third component, with tuber quality. Components 1 and 2 helped confirm the results of cluster analysis by delineating 3 overlapping groups of cultivars, Component 3 indicated cultivars of the 3 groups which were thought to be the most primitive because of their low quality culinary characteristics. The 2 techniques are, thus, complementary and each technique provides information not evident from the other.

Open access

F. J. Lawrence, L. W. Martin, G. W. Varseveld, and D. E. Booster

Abstract

‘Linn’ is a moderately vigorous and productive cultivar of strawberry (Fragaria ⨯ ananassa Duch.) with firm fruit for machine harvest or for a combination of machine and hand harvest. It was named for Linn County, Oregon, an area important in the early development of the strawberry industry in Oregon.

Open access

Jeffery L. Olsen, Lloyd W. Martin, Peter J. Pelofske, Patrick J. Breen, and Charles F. Forney

Abstract

Field grown strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of an advanced breeding selection (OR-US 4681) were harvested every 3–4 days during establishment and through fruiting the next spring. Plant dry weight and leaf area increased rapidly during mid-summer, then slowed and finally ceased in October. Absolute growth rate (AGR) peaked at 1 g dry matter/day near 1 Sept., then fell to zero by early October. Over this period, there was a decrease in weekly mean temperature (37%), solar radiation (47%), and daylength (35%). Maximum values of relative growth rate (RGR) (0.044 g/g/day) and unit leaf rate (ULR) (9 g/m2/day) were determined at the start of sampling at the end of June; both rates declined steadily thereafter. The following April through June, both plant dry weight and leaf area increased exponentially, whereas RGR remained constant at 0.02 g/g/day, and ULR rose from 5.5 to 6.5 g/m2/day. The rate of dry matter accumulation in fruit was exponential, whereas it was linear in leaf lamina and stems (crowns plus petioles). A much smaller proportion of dry matter was partitioned to leaves during fruiting than during plant establishment.

Open access

T. W. Young, G. H. Snyder, F. G. Martin, and N. C. Hayslip

Abstract

‘Christian Dior’ and ‘Happiness’ roses on Rosa fortuniana stock, fertilized with 3 rates each of N, P, and K factorially combined, were grown for 3 years at Ft. Pierce, Florida. All fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the experiment under plastic mulch just before the bushes were planted. About 2300 lb./A of N on ‘Christian Dior’ and 2100 lb. on ‘Happiness’ produced the greatest number of flowers. Leaf N at 18 months was also maximized by 2100 lb. N. Nitrogen levels maximizing stem lengths were slightly lower. The independent effects of P were minor and low levels best, perhaps because residual soil P at start of the study was adequate. Flower production decreased with K fertilization beyond low rates, whereas stem lengths increased to a max at about 1700 lb./A. At times, various nutrient interactions were noted. ‘Christian Dior’ consistently yielded more flowers than ‘Happiness’. With minor exceptions, ‘Happiness’ had longer stems.

Open access

P. B. Lombard, Nancy W. Callan, F. G. Dennis Jr., N. E. Looney, G. C. Martin, A. R. Renquist, and E. A. Mielke

Abstract

Flowering, fruit set, fruit size, and bearing potential are the main components of tree fruit and nut yield. The contributions of the individual components to yield and their interrelationships must be clearly defined in research addressing tree fruit productivity. Researchers have been inconsistent in terminology and procedures used to evaluate treatment effects on the major yield components. Although the relative effect of a treatment may be evident within an individual study, standardized measuring and reporting procedures are necessary if one wishes to compare results within the same species from various investigators, locations, and disciplines.

Open access

Brian M. Schwartz, Wayne W. Hanna, Lisa L. Baxter, Paul L. Raymer, F. Clint Waltz, Alec R. Kowalewski, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, Benjamin G. Wherley, Grady L. Miller, Susana R. Milla-Lewis, William C. Reynolds, Yanqi Wu, Dennis L. Martin, Justin Q. Moss, Michael P. Kenna, J. Bryan Unruh, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Jing Zhang, and Patricio R. Munoz

There are ≈20 million hectares of turfgrass managed in the United States, constituting the $40 billion turfgrass industry (National Turfgrass Federation, 2017). In most tropical and warm, temperate regions, bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is the foundation of the turfgrass industry (Taliaferro et al., 2004). Development of bermudagrass for turfgrass began in the early 1900s. Much of this development has involved the hybridization of Cynodon dactylon (L.), a tetraploid recognized as an invasive weed species in many regions, and C. transvaalensis (Burt-Davy), a more erect-growing diploid (de Wet and Harlan, 1970