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  • Author or Editor: Eun-Sun Kim x
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Geraniums are sensitive to ethylene during shipping and respond by abscising their petals. Treatment of stock plants with ethylene (ethephon) in order to increase cutting yield resulted in earlier flowering in Pelargonium × hortorum `Kim' and `Veronica', but did not result in increased susceptibility to petal abscission following exposure to 1.0 μL·L-1 ethylene. Treatment of `Kim', `Veronica', `Fox', and `Cotton Candy' with 1.0 μL·L-1 ethylene resulted in increased petal abscission within one hour, with `Fox' being the most sensitive and `Kim' the least. Pretreatment of florets with 1-MCP for 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours at concentrations of 0.1 or 1.0 μL·L-1 decreased petal abscission in all cultivars following exposure to 1.0 μL·L-1 ethylene. Treatment with 0.1 μL·L-1 1-MCP for 1 hour reduced petal abscission rates in ethylene treated florets to that of non-ethylene treated controls in all cultivars except Fox. `Fox' florets, which are more sensitive to ethylene, required 12 to 24 hours of exposure to 1-MCP to reduce petal abscission rates to that of control flowers. Pretreatment of geranium plants with 1-MCP can be used to reduce petal shattering during shipping. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (ethephon); 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).

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The efficiency of volatile formaldehyde removal was assessed in 86 species of plants representing five general classes (ferns, woody foliage plants, herbaceous foliage plants, Korean native plants, and herbs). Phytoremediation potential was assessed by exposing the plants to gaseous formaldehyde (2.0 μL·L−1) in airtight chambers (1.0 m3) constructed of inert materials and measuring the rate of removal. Osmunda japonica, Selaginella tamariscina, Davallia mariesii, Polypodium formosanum, Psidium guajava, Lavandula spp., Pteris dispar, Pteris multifida, and Pelargonium spp. were the most effective species tested, removing more than 1.87 μg·m−3·cm−2 over 5 h. Ferns had the highest formaldehyde removal efficiency of the classes of plants tested with O. japonica the most effective of the 86 species (i.e., 6.64 μg·m−3·cm−2 leaf area over 5 h). The most effective species in individual classes were: ferns—Osmunda japonica, Selaginella tamariscina, and Davallia mariesii; woody foliage plants—Psidium guajava, Rhapis excels, and Zamia pumila; herbaceous foliage plants—Chlorophytum bichetii, Dieffenbachia ‘Marianne’, Tillandsia cyanea, and Anthurium andraeanum; Korean native plants—Nandina domestica; and herbs—Lavandula spp., Pelargonium spp., and Rosmarinus officinalis. The species were separated into three general groups based on their formaldehyde removal efficiency: excellent (greater than 1.2 μg·m−3 formaldehyde per cm2 of leaf area over 5 h), intermediate (1.2 or less to 0.6), and poor (less than 0.6). Species classified as excellent are considered viable phytoremediation candidates for homes and offices where volatile formaldehyde is a concern.

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