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Ernest K. Akamine

Abstract

Hawaii has probably the most highly developed tropical floral industry in terms of production and export values. The wholesale value of all ornamental crops (cut and lei flowers, foliages, and rooted and potted ornamentals) produced in the State amounted to $4,484,000 (1971), $5,101,000 (1972), $6,341,000 (1973), and $8,211,000 (1974) (7). The total value of all ornamental crops exported was $2,719,000 (1971), $3,074,000 (1972), $3,678,000 (1973), and $4,359,000 (1974). Therefore nearly 60% of the total production was exported, mostly to the U.S. mainland and some to foreign countries. The cut and lei flowers and foliages which are the subjects of this presentation accounted for 89.2% (1971), 90.3% (1972), 86.0%, (1973), 92.0% (1974) of the total value of ornamentals exported. Various rooted and potted ornamentals made up the balance of the export value.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine

Abstract

Heating fruits at 37.2°C for 24 hours controlled endogenous brown spot (EBS) in refrigerated fresh pineapples [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Smooth Cayenne]. Heat treatment after refrigeration was more effective than before refrigeration and reduced molding of the fruit butt Heat treatments did not affect surface coloring, fruit weight loss, crown browning, senescence, decay incidence, translucence, flavor, or pulp aroma, but did improve pulp appearance by making it more golden yellow than of untreated fruits.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

Gas chromatography and bioassays were used to identify ethylene (C2H4) in fruit emanations of mammee apple (Mammea americana L.). C2H4 production probably triggered the respiratory rise in preclimacteric fruit and its relationship to respiration was typical of that for a climacteric fruit. C2H4 production was however, independent of respiration in immature and postclimacteric fruits. C2H4 production increased to a peak and then declined with deterioration of fruit in spite of nearly constant rates of respiration in immature fruit and declining rates in postclimacteric fruit. Peak production of C2H4, 408 μl per kg per hr, from preclimacteric fruit is probably the highest reported among fruits.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

Using the puree juice of 1/2 fruit for soluble solids determination, it was found that for freshly harvested fruit to meet the min % soluble solids (SS) of 11.5 required by Hawaiian grade standards for marketable papayas, the fruit should have at least 6% surface yellow coloration. For postharvest ripened fruit, the min degree of surface coloring when harvested should be as least 3% for the ripened fruit to meet the min soluble solids (SS) requirement. Because the 6% surface coloration is more readily visible than the 3% level in the papaya orchard, the higher stage of coloration is recommended as a index for min harvest maturity.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

The relationship between the respiratory pattern and ethylene (C2H4) production in developing and senescing fruit of Guiana chestnut (Pachira aquatica Aubl.) suggested that accelerated evolution and increased internal concentrations of C2H4 just prior to dehiscence of the fruit controls dehiscence. High concentrations of C2H4 are probably first synthesized in the placenta and the attached seeds and then diffused to the pericarp which then responds to the stimulus by dehiscing.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

Respiration (ml CO2/kg/hour) decreased as fruits matured in mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden), avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv. unknown), and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Kwai Mi). With ripening, a respiratory rise commenced in the climacteric mango and avocado, but not in the nonclimacteric lychee. Ethylene (μl/mg/hour) production in all species also decreased as the fruit matured, became undetectable, then reappeared upon fruit ripening (mango and avocado) or senescence (lychee). The possible relationship between respiration and ethylene production in the ontogeny of fruit is discussed.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

Fruits of 4 species and cultivars of guava (Psidium guaiava L. cv. Beaumont, P. cattleianum Sabine, P. cattleianum f. lucidum Degener, and P. guajava L. cv. Allahabed Safeda) were found to be climacteric in their respiratory behavior with C2H4 triggering the respiratory rise. Fruits of 4 species of Eugenia (Eugenia malaccensis L., E. cumini (L.) Druce, E. uniflora L., and E. jambos L.) exhibited typical respiratory behavior of nonclimacteric fruits including the response to exogenous C2H4 treatments. The possibility of using respiratory data as a physiological tool for taxonomic differentiation of plants is discussed.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

The climacteric nature of persimon fruit Diospyros discolor) was indicated by CO2 and ethylene production patterns at 2 stages of maturity (mature green and 5% red-colored).

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

The patterns of concentrations of CO2 and C2H4 in the cavity of attached ripening papayas (Carcia papaya L. cv. Solo) were similar to those of CO2 in respiration and C2H4 production in detached ripening fruits. The peak concentrations of these gasses occurred when the surface color of the fruits was about 80%. The flavor of the pulp of the ripe fruit was rated highest at this time.

Open access

Ernest K. Akamine and Theodore Goo

Abstract

Cold storage at 13°C or storage in 2% O, at 24–25°C was beneficial for extending the vase life of cut ‘Ozaki’ flowers of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Lind.).