Since late Mar. 2020, many universities halted normal operations due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although extension uses many different techniques to educate consumers, it has been slow to grasp the power of social media. Faced with a dilemma of using digital methods instead of in-person field days, short courses, and workshops, Twitter was a viable alternative, especially for broad audience engagement. Tweet threads were posted on Twitter every Monday morning from 6 Apr. to 8 June 2020. Each thread consisted of 10 tweets. A hashtag #YardFruits was used to start the thread and for later reference. For the first nine threads only one fruit species was discussed per thread. The final thread consisted of single tweets of several species. Engagement percentage did not differ over time but did differ among the crop species. Tweets that did not include a photo received less engagement (2.7%) than those that did include a photo (4.7%). My Twitter account saw a 6.5% increase in followers during the series. Grape (Vitis sp.), passion fruit (Passiflora sp.), fig (Ficus carica), and pear (Pyrus communis) threads had the least engagement and were different from the Other Fruits thread. All other threads were similar. Extension educators can grow their influence by using well-targeted, focused tweets and tweet threads, especially those that use hashtags and photos.
Eric T. Stafne
In 2005, 212 ha of grapes were grown in Oklahoma and more than 30 licensed wineries were in operation. With this increase in grape growing and wine making comes the necessity to evaluate commercially appropriate cultivars. `Rubaiyat' was a cross between Seibel 5437 and `Bailey' made at Oklahoma State University by Herman Hinrichs in 1952. The overall genetic constitution of `Rubaiyat' (based on disomic inheritance) is 37.5% V. lincecumii, 31.25% V. vinifera, 18.75% V. labrusca, 6.25% V. rupestris, and 6.25% V. riparia. `Rubaiyat' is a dark blue-black grape that ripens in mid-August. The berries are medium-sized and round. The clusters are medium in size with a long shoulder. The vine has medium vigor and good to very good disease resistance. The juice is very dark red with about 19% sugars and tartaric acid levels of 0.63%. The wine is fruity and has good balance. A slight “foxy” flavor from the V. labrusca is sometimes evident in wine made from `Rubaiyat'. Currently, other hybrid grape cultivars such as `Chambourcin' are more popular for use as red wine varietals than `Rubaiyat'. However, in observation trials in Oklahoma, `Rubaiyat' compares favorably to `Chambourcin' in quality and may outyield it. Perhaps the greatest potential for `Rubaiyat' is as a teinturier, since it has the attribute of red flesh derived from its progenitor `Alicante Bouschet', a parent of `Alicante Ganzin'. `Rubaiyat' is not widely grown, but the potential exists for it to become an important cultivar for Oklahoma and surrounding states.
Amir Rezazadeh and Eric T. Stafne
The present study assessed the effect of photoperiod on budbreak of cuttings of three interspecific hybrid grape (Vitis) cultivars that had received different chilling hours. Stem cuttings were collected at 100-hour intervals of chilling (200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 hours) from the vineyard and kept in three growth chambers with daylengths of 8, 16, and 24 hours. Another group of cuttings were maintained in a greenhouse with a natural daylength range of 10.5–13 hours [8 Dec. 2017 to 4 May 2018 (average = 12 hours)]. Chilling requirements, days to budbreak, and budbreak rate were determined after plants were exposed to different chilling hours and daylengths. Results of our study demonstrated that the chilling requirements of all three cultivars were adequately reached at 600 hours or more. Increasing chilling exposure from 600 to 800 hours shortened the time to budbreak in all cultivars. Overall, ‘MidSouth’ had an average budbreak rate of 90% when receiving at least 600 hours chilling. ‘Blanc du bois’ and ‘Lake Emerald’ had 62% and 65% average budbreak, respectively. Longer days (24 hours) reduced time to budbreak by 14, 6, and 8 days, respectively, in ‘Blanc du bois’, ‘Lake Emerald’, and ‘MidSouth’ at 600 hours chilling. A combination of 24-hour photoperiod and chilling of 600 hours resulted in a maximum budbreak rate of 70%, 70%, and 100% in ‘Blanc du bois’, ‘Lake Emerald’, and ‘MidSouth’, respectively. Our results indicate that breaking dormancy may be controlled by both temperature and photoperiod in these three cultivars.
Haijun Zhu and Eric T. Stafne
Paclobutrazol (PBZ) was applied to 6-year-old pecan (Carya illinoinensis) trees as a basal trunk drench (0, 30, 90, and 150 mg·cm−2 trunk cross-sectional area) in Dec. 2012. Terminal shoot growth was retarded for 1 year after a single application of PBZ. The total number of current season shoots showed a significant increase with 30- and 90-mg·cm−2 PBZ treatments. After PBZ application at 30, 60, and 90 mg·cm−2, the percentage of very short shoots (<5 cm) was 32.3%, 36.3%, and 32.3%, respectively, compared with 22.4% on control trees; the percentage of short shoots (5–15 cm) increased to 36.0%, 38.1%, and 43.5%, respectively. The percent of long shoots (>30 cm) was decreased to 7.4%, 5.1%, and 7.6%, respectively, after PBZ application, compared with 18.7% with control. Shoots varying from 5 to 30 cm in length accounted for at least 63.3% of all pistillate inflorescences the following spring.
Eric T. Stafne and Kathleen D. Kelsey
Junior college (JC) and community college (CC) programs offering viticulture and enology courses have proliferated in recent years in many states, especially outside of traditional grape growing regions. A survey was sent to 69 land-grant (LG) horticulture, viticulture, and enology specialists who may interact with JC and CC programs offering viticulture and enology courses. Forty answered for a response rate of 58%. Results indicated that most LG horticulture/viticulture programs are not interacting with the JC/CC programs and that LG specialists do not believe the education received by students of the JC/CC program is sufficient to create well-trained industry professionals. JC/CC programs are generally regarded as positive for the viticulture and enology industry by LG specialists, but some question the quality of instruction. Many LG respondents do not believe the JC/CC programs are impacting their own programs and do not see the JC/CC programs as competitors to their programs; however, documented actions of JC/CC programs would dictate otherwise, especially in the area of Cooperative Extension programming. LG viticulture and enology programs should no longer consider JC/CC programs as noncompetitors for funding and clientele interaction, especially in states with limited resources. LG programs should seek to develop appropriate partnerships with JC/CC programs to benefit the viticulture and enology community. However, any collaboration must be mutually beneficial, well-designed, well-coordinated, and conducted with reciprocal respect for each program.
Eric T. Stafne and John R. Clark
In a database system that allows for quick and accurate querying, PediTrack generates pedigrees in an easily understandable format. Other pedigree programs are available commercially, but are often expensive, specific to certain organisms, or unadaptable for specific programmatic use. PediTrack allows a personal computer (PC) user with Microsoft Access version 2000 or higher to use the simple program without charge. This software is widely available and easily adaptable to a variety of breeding program functions. PediTrack does not perform any calculations, so the initial program size is small (<2 megabytes). The program consists solely of the basic framework for housing pedigree information and reporting pedigrees based on those records.
Eric T. Stafne, Charles T. Rohla, and Becky L. Carroll
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) shells are waste products that are occasionally used for mulch in ornamental landscape settings, yet most shell waste is left in piles near the shelling facility or discarded by other methods. If another use for this waste product could be developed, it may add income for pecan producers and provide peach (Prunus persica) growers with another option for weed control. A block of ‘Loring’ peach trees grafted onto ‘Halford’ rootstocks was planted at a spacing of 18 × 22 ft in Feb. 2005 at the Cimarron Valley Research Station near Perkins, OK, to determine the effect of pecan shell mulch on peach trees. Five treatments were imposed: no weed control except mowing (MOW), weed-free 6- × 6-ft area maintained with glyphosate herbicide (SPRAY), 6-ft × 6-ft × 2-inch deep mulch (TWO), 6-ft × 6-ft × 4-inch deep mulch (FOUR), and 6-ft × 6-ft × 6-inch deep mulch (SIX). Yields in 2008 were poorest in the MOW treatment (13.2 kg/tree and 93 fruit/tree). All other treatments did not differ. Soluble solids concentration as a measure of fruit quality and fruit weight was unaffected by treatment. Tree height, pruning weights, and trunk cross-sectional area were similar with the exception that MOW was lower for all three growth measurements beginning in 2007. Pecan mulch appears to have the potential to reduce soil pH. Foliar analysis for nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) showed treatment differences in 2006. No treatment differences were evident in 2007 and 2008 for K and Zn, but in 2008, FOUR had greater N than MOW. Tree mortality increased with pecan mulch depth. MOW, SPRAY, and TWO had little tree loss (0%–5%), whereas FOUR and SIX had 15% and 35% mortality, respectively. Tree mortality was attributed to record rains in 2007 coupled with longer soil moisture retention under the deeper mulch.
Eric T. Stafne, John R. Clark, and Curt R. Rom
Leaf gas exchange of six red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and one blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) genotypes growing in 12-L containers was measured at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) once a month for 3 months in growth chambers by infrared gas analysis. Measurements were taken on three successive leaves on the same primocane between the third and seventh nodes (≈75% to 85% of full leaf expansion). The plants were grown in ambient (field) conditions except when measurements were taken. Maximum daily ambient temperatures rose as high as ≈37 °C during this period. Net CO2 assimilation (A), evapotranspiration (ET), and stomatal conductance (gs) were measured during June, July, and August. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) in A were found among the seven genotypes. 'Arapaho' blackberry displayed the highest mean A rate at all temperatures. Only in the raspberry cultivars Nova and Reveille did the rate of A drop significantly when temperature increased from 20 to 30 °C. 'Reveille' was also the only cultivar in which A significantly declined between 30 and 35 °C. The ET increased significantly over the four temperatures in four cultivars ('Arapaho', 'Heritage', 'Nova', and 'Southland'). The ET rate at 35 °C was higher for 'Arapaho' than for all other cultivars. 'Autumn Bliss', 'Dormanred', and 'Reveille' did not change significantly as the temperature rose from 20 to 35 °C. Stomatal conductance of 'Heritage' and 'Arapaho' did not change significantly between 20 and 35 °C, whereas that of 'Autumn Bliss' and 'Reveille' declined almost 50% when temperature increased to 30 or 35 °C.
Eric T. Stafne and Barbara J. Smith
Rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum) bushes are relatively easy to grow and commonplace across Mississippi; however, if not properly maintained, the bushes will decline over time. Eighteen, aged, low-productivity ‘Woodard’ rabbiteye blueberry bushes were pruned at two different heights (ground level and a 50-cm above ground level) after harvest in July 2017, and phosphorous acid was applied as a drench and foliar spray in the first year, but this was discontinued as the applications had no effect on the bushes. For two seasons, fruit yields were collected and weighed, bushes were measured for growth parameters, and canes were weighed. Bushes pruned at the 50-cm above ground level had much higher yields in both 2019 (3.47 vs. 0.63 kg) and 2020 (3.91 vs. 1.23 kg), thus providing a substantial yield benefit. The 50-cm above ground level pruning treatment bushes produced more canes by the end of the study, therefore accounting for more fruiting area, as seen in the harvest index. In short, pruning old, nonproductive bushes at a 50-cm above ground level can provide growers with greater potential for early economic returns than pruning at ground level, for ‘Woodard’ rabbiteye blueberry.
Eric T. Stafne, John R. Clark, and Curt R. Rom
Seven Rubus cultivars were evaluated at two locations in Arkansas, northwest (Fayetteville) and southwest (Hope), to evaluate plant growth differences under high and very high summer temperature conditions. Temperatures during the hottest month (July) averaged 34 °C and 38 °C for Fayetteville and Hope, respectively. Growth; leaf area and number; and fresh and dry weights of leaves, stems, and roots were measured on the containerized raspberry cultivars Autumn Bliss, Dormanred, Heritage, Nova, Reveille, and Southland and the blackberry cultivar Arapaho. Growth measurements included number of canes per plant, number of laterals per cane, cane length, node number, and internode length. Measurements were taken monthly from June through September. Leaf areas were done after all growth measurements were taken at both locations in September. Variation occurred among cultivars and locations for leaf area, fresh and dry weights, growth, and leaf number. Plant death occurred at the Hope location, with `Heritag', `Reveille', and `Southland' all having plant mortality, while `Dormanred' and `Arapaho', both southern-adapted cultivars, had the greatest fresh and dry weights. The Fayetteville location had no plant loss after initial emergence in spring, and this more moderate environment probably contributed to higher plant survival. Our data indicated that only `Dormanred' and `Arapaho' achieved adequate survival and growth in the very high temperatures of the Hope location, whereas other cultivars (Reveille and Southland) with some southern U.S.-adapted germplasm, showed poor adaptation to the environments of our study. Our findings reflect the impact of high heat on non-adapted germplasm and reveal information on adaptation levels needed for parental consideration in breeding for southern conditions.