Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Eric P. Beers x
Clear All Modify Search


Germinated seeds of ‘Heinz 1350 VF’ tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were subjected to short-term (through 5 days) low temperature (0° or 5°C) storage suspended in 2 fluid-drilling gels (Natrosol 250 HHR or Laponite 445). Following storage, a greenhouse emergence assay and respiratory characterization via double inhibitor titrations (0.4/mM KCN and 10.0/mM salicylhydroxamic acid) were conducted. After 3-day storage in Natrosol or moist cheesecloth, emergence was about 90% but had decreased to <60% following 3-day storage in Laponite. With 5-day storage in Natrosol, 0° drastically reduced seedling vigor relative to that at 5°. Total O2 consumption by all stored germinated seeds was less than that of unstored germinated seeds. Consumption of O2 via both the cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathways was not affected differentially by storage temperature or gel. The maximum inducible rate of oxygen consumption via the alternative pathway decreased during storage in Natrosol at 0° or Laponite at 5° relative to that of unstored seeds or seeds stored in Natrosol at 5°.

Open Access

Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on young fruit abscission, leaf and fruit ethylene production, and expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and cell wall degradation were examined in ‘Delicious’ apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). NAA at 15 mg·L−1 increased fruit abscission and ethylene production of leaves and fruit when applied at the 11-mm stage of fruit development, whereas AVG, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, at 250 mg·L−1 reduced NAA-induced fruit abscission and ethylene production of leaves and fruit. NAA also increased expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes (MdACS5A and MdACS5B), ACC oxidase gene (MdACO1), and ethylene receptor genes (MdETR1a, MdETR1b, MdETR2, MdERS1, and MdERS2) in fruit cortex and fruit abscission zones. However, AVG reduced NAA-induced expression of these genes except for MdERS2 in fruit abscission zones. NAA increased expression of the polygalacturonase gene MdPG2 in fruit abscission zones but not in fruit cortex, whereas AVG reduced NAA-enhanced expression of MdPG2 in fruit abscission zones. The expression of β-1,4-glucanase gene MdCel1 in fruit abscission zones was decreased by NAA but was unaffected by AVG. Our results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and the MdPG2 gene are involved in young fruit abscission caused by NAA.

Free access

The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on fruit set and the expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis and perception and cell wall degradation in apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were studied when applied during the normal chemical thinning period. 1-MCP at 209 mg·L−1 had a small negative effect or no effect on the final fruit set, depending on the experiment, but could cause a transient delay of June drop when applied at petal fall or the 10-mm stage in ‘Pioneer McIntosh’ apple. 1-MCP at 160 mg·L−1 had no effect on fruit abscission but induced ethylene production by leaves and fruit of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. NAA at 6 or 15 mg·L−1 effectively increased fruit abscission in both apple cultivars. NAA enhanced the expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis (MdACS5A, MdACS5B, and MdACO1) or perception (MdETR1, MdETR1b, MdETR2, MdERS1, and MdERS2) and cell wall degradation (MdPG2). 1-MCP did not affect the expression of MdACS5A and MdACS5B in the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), although it enhanced the expression of these two genes in the fruit cortex (FC) from 6 hours to 1 day after treatment. The expression of MdACO1 in both tissues was increased by 1-MCP by 3 days post-treatment and thereafter. 1-MCP had only a small influence on the expression of most ethylene receptor genes, with the exception of MdETR1, which was upregulated in the FC to a level similar to that observed for NAA treatment. In response to 1-MCP, in the FAZ, the expression of MdCel1 and MdPG2 was upregulated at the beginning and the end, respectively, of the experiment, but otherwise remained at or below control levels. 1-MCP did not inhibit NAA-induced abscission of young apple fruit, suggesting that abscission does not solely depend on ethylene signal transduction, or that the periods of effectiveness for 1-MCP and ethylene were asynchronous.

Free access

Preharvest abscission of apple [Malus ×domestica (L.) Borkh.] fruits causes significant crop loss in many years. In this study, fruit cutting was used to induce abscission in August and September. Abscission zones of `Redchief Delicious' Mercier strain fruits were sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 days after cutting. Thin-layer-plate assays were developed and used to identify hydrolytic enzymes active in the abscission zone (AZ) after induction. Increased activity of cellulase, but not polygalacturonase, was detected in the AZ following cutting. Cellulase activity was consistently high in AZs 4 days after cutting. Both AVG (652 mg·L–1) and NAA (10 mg·L–1) applied 2 or 4 days after cutting delayed drop, but NAA delayed drop 1.6 days longer than did AVG. Fruits treated with AVG dropped over a longer period than did control or NAA-treated fruits. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

Free access

Metabolic characteristics of developing sugary-l maize (Zea mays L.) endosperms were investigated. In the later stages of development (>30 days postpollination), sugary-1 kernels maintained higher levels of many enzyme activities and retained more moisture than normal kernels. Higher enzyme activities were attributed to moisture retention and were not associated with any increase in dry weight accumulation. Of enzyme activities measured at 20 days postpollination, that of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was higher in sugary-1 kernels than in normal, whereas total amylase, a-amylase, and pullulanase activities were lower. Experiments testing the effects of zero, one, two, and three doses of the sugary-1 gene in OH43 endosperms indicated that the sugary-1 phenotype was not expressed until three doses of the sugary-1 gene were present. Decreased activities of amylases, but not of pullulanase, were attributed to an interference in detection by phytoglycogen. Increased ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity is attributed to a response by the maize endosperm cells to increased sucrose concentrations.

Free access