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  • Author or Editor: Eric D. Kuhn x
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Abstract

“Sideworking,” a foraging behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) which does not result in pollination, previously has been reported to occur on blossoms of ‘Delicious’ cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh.). “Sideworking” is also apparent on the blossoms of ‘Golden Delicious’ cultivar. The structure of a ‘Golden Delicious’ blossom, a commonly used pollinizer of ‘Delicious’ cultivar, permits honey bees to forage for nectar by standing on the petals of the blossom while forcing their proboscises through the stamens. As a result, the honey bees usually do not contact the blossom’s anthers and pollen transfer is unlikely. In an orchard of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Delicious’ cultivars where ‘Delicious’ bloomed slightly ahead of ‘Golden Delicious’, the percentage of honey bees working from the side on the blossoms of ‘Golden Delicious’ was initially high but dropped as the bloom of ‘Golden Delicious’ advanced. A preponderance of sideworking honey bees on the pollinizer ‘Golden Delicious’ during the period in which the blossoms of ‘Delicious’ optimally set fruit might have a negative effect on fruit shape and/or fruit set of ‘Delicious’ apples.

Open Access

Abstract

A simple measure of fruit asymmetry was used to evaluate fruit shape in ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). The maximum/minimum length ratio, the ratio of the maximum distance between an individual calyx lobe and the stem end shoulder of the fruit to the minimum distance between calyx lobe and stem end shoulder, gave consistent results for evaluating normal and abnormal fruit shape.

Open Access