Primocane-fruiting blackberries produce fruit on current-season canes (primocanes) and second-season canes (floricanes), if desired. Primocane-fruiting blackberries are likely adapted to a diverse range of climates, particularly because cold hardiness is not an issue when plants are grown for a primocane crop only. The floricane crop of ‘Prime-Jan’® and ‘Prime-Jim’® is from 3 June to 6 July in Arkansas and 30 June to 22 Aug. in Oregon, thus overlapping with other fresh market blackberries. However, although the primocane crop overlaps with the semierect cultivar Chester Thornless, the fruiting season of the primocane-fruiting types is longer. Harvest on primocanes began 17 July and mid-August in Arkansas and Oregon, respectively. The primocanes of ‘Prime-Jan’ and ‘Prime-Jim’ tend to branch naturally, producing a couple of branches near the base. However, soft-tipping primocanes at 1 m early in the season increased branch and flower number, resulting in a threefold yield increase compared with untipped canes. Yield and berry size in Oregon has been from 1.8 to 5.2 t·ha−1, depending on primocane management treatment, and 5.2 to 7.4 g, respectively. However, yield would have been much higher if all fruit could have been harvested as would be possible under protected culture. Our research to date indicates that primocane-fruiting blackberry can be easily manipulated to adjust harvest time. Remowing primocanes to create a delayed flush of growth will delay harvest. Rowcovers or tunnels that increase temperature will advance primocane growth and harvest. Soft-tipping height and frequency can affect cane architecture and season. Management techniques along with new genotypes of primocane-fruiting blackberry will have a great impact on blackberry production worldwide.
Bernadine C. Strik and Ellen Thompson
Kevin A. Lombard, Ellen Peffley, Leslie Thompson, Emmanuel Geoffriau and Jay Morris
The flavonol quercetin has been reported as having many health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. The overall content of quercetin in onion was examined in four yellow varieties (`Rio Rita', `RNX 10968', `Predator', and `Tamara') and one red variety purchased at a local grocery store. Each bulb was quartered, with one quarter saved as a control and the other three quarters subjected to three cooking treatments that simulated common domestic processing methods of preparing onion. The treatments included sautéing in sunflower oil for 5 minutes at 93 °C, baking for 15 min. at 176 °C, and boiling for 5 minutes in distilled water. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a fine powder, blended with 80% EtOH, and filtered for quercetin extraction. The filtrate was then analyzed with a spectrophotometer (uv 374 nm). Quercetin concentrations were obtained in mg quercetin/kg fresh weight of tissue by regressing spectrophotometer readings onto a standard curve. Significant differences between varieties were found when examining fresh samples alone with the red variety containing the highest content of quercetin. Results of cooking showed that sautéing produced an overall 27% gain in quercetin concentration (significantly higher than the fresh control), baking produced an overall 4% gain in concentration (insignificant from the fresh control), while boiling produced an overall 18% loss in quercetin concentration (significantly lower than the fresh control).
Ellen Thompson, Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark and Chad E. Finn
The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars ‘Prime-Jan’ and ‘Prime-Jim’ were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, OR. Primocanes that were “soft-tipped” in early summer to 1 m were compared with untipped primocanes. In both years, soft-tipped primocanes developed two- to threefold more branches and almost twice the number of flowers as untipped canes. ‘Prime-Jan’ and ‘Prime-Jim’ began blooming on the branches of soft-tipped canes in mid-July, whereas untipped primocanes began to bloom in late July in 2005 and 2006. Within a primocane inflorescence, the terminal or distal flower was always the first to open followed by terminal flowers from axes located on the basal portion of the inflorescence. Flowers then opened acropetally within the inflorescence, with the exception of the most basal flower, which was typically the last to open. The blooming pattern within an inflorescence was similar for soft-tipped and untipped primocanes. Days from anthesis to black fruit for soft-tipped and untipped primocanes averaged 45 to 51 d in both years, depending on cultivar.