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  • Author or Editor: Eleanor P. Maness x
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Abstract

Since the techniques of column, paper, thin layer, and gas chromatography are playing a rapidly increasing role in horticultural laboratories and in the interests of horticulturists, two papers on chromatography technique are presented in this issue. W. E. Ballinger and Eleanor P. Maness of North Carolina State University offer an improvement in paper chromatography which has enabled them to materially increase laboratory productivity in the separation of anthocyanins from blueberries. M. Allen Stevens of Campbell Research Institute briefly, but concisely, surveys the principles of gas chromatography and illustrates several horticultural research potentials with this new medium.

Open Access

Abstract

The 3-monoarabinosides and 3-monogalactosides of delphinidin (Dp), petunidin (Pt), malvidin (Mv), and peonidin (Pn) as well as small amounts of the 3-monoglucosides of Dp, Pt, Mv, Pn, and cyanidin (Cy) were isolated from ripe blueberry fruit, variety ‘Croatan’. Small amounts of the 3-monogalactoside of Cy were present also. None of these 14 anthocyanins (Acy) were acylated. The major Acy were (in descending order): Mv-3-galactose, Dp-3-galactose, Dp-3-arabinose, Pt-3-galactose, Pt-3-arabinose and Mv-3-arabinose.

Open Access

Abstract

HPLC analysis of the fruits of species of Vaccinium sections Herpothamnus (V. crassifolium and V. sempervirens), Pyxothamnus (V. ovatum), Polycodium (V. stamineum), and Oxycoccoides (V. erythrocarpum), determined that species in these sections fall into two distinct groups. Species in Herpothamnus and Pyxothamnus contained the 3-monoarabinosides, 3-monogalactosides, and 3-monoglucosides of cyanidin, dephinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin. Differences in anthocyanins (ACY), aglycones, and aglycone-sugars were not useful in distinguishing among species in Herpothamnus. However, differences in aglycones and aglycone-sugars were useful in distinguishing between Herpothamnus and Pyxothamnus. Species in Polycodium and Oxycoccoides contained more than 90% cyanidins, no delphinidins, and small percentages of peonidins and malvidins. Vaccinium stamineum also contained no petunidins. These two sections were similar in ACY and aglycones, but did vary in percent galactose and arabinose. Potential crossabilities, along with overall similarities in ACY among these and other sections, support a fairly recent origin of North American sections of the genus Vaccinium.

Open Access

Abstract

A pink (whitish)-fruited blueberry seedling that appeared in a hybrid highbush blueberry progeny in North Carolina is described. The major anthocyanins (Acy) detected in this seedling were arabinosides and galactosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin. The pink seedling had the same 15 possible combinations of 5 aglycones and 3 sugars previously reported for the normally blue-fruited cv. Croatan, but in smaller quantities. Total Acy contents of the pink seedling and 9 siblings ranged from 2.5 (pink fruit) to 49 (blue fruit) mg/10-g fruit. Acy content among the different clones was independent of berry pH, acidity (Ac), soluble solids (SS), or SS/Ac ratio. One hundred and seventy-five seedlings in this same progeny were scored for maximum berry color development. The results suggest that Acy expression is dependent on 1 or 2 major genes and that Acy content may be quantitatively inherited. For cultivars whose fruits are normally blue, the commercial use of blue fruit color as the major criterion of marketability (ripeness) may not be valid since color development is not necessarily related to berry ripeness and quality.

Open Access