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  • Author or Editor: Eileen Boyle x
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Native plants are becoming widely used in built landscapes to help mitigate the loss of biodiversity caused by urbanization. The primary advantage of native plant species over introduced ornamentals is their ability to support the development of the insects that fuel vertebrate food webs as well as specialist pollinators. The horticultural industry has introduced many cultivars of native plants to improve their aesthetic value and disease resistance, but there has been little work that measures the impact of these genetic changes on insect herbivores and pollinators. Here we measure how six desirable traits in native woody plant cultivars (leaf color, variegation, fall color, habit, disease resistance, and fruit size) compare with their wild types in terms of their ability to support insect herbivore development, abundance, and species richness. Using a common garden experiment, we quantified the abundance and diversity of insect herbivores using each species and its cultivars for growth and development over a 2-year period, as well as cumulative feed damage over the entire season. We also conducted feeding tests with evergreen bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis) to measure the preference of hatchling caterpillars for cultivars vs. straight species. We found that cultivars that had leaves altered from green to red, blue, or purple deterred insect feeding in all three experiments, a preference for variegated cultivars in one of our three experiments, but no consistent pattern of use among the species and cultivars chosen for other traits. These results suggest that the usefulness of native cultivars in restoring insect-driven food webs depends on the cultivar trait that has been selected.

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