Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cv. `Premium Crop') plants grown in perlite were supplied with nutrient solutions containing three levels of added boron (0.04 (severely deficient), 0.08 (moderately deficient) or 0.80 (normal) mg L-1). These treatments produced plants exhibiting either obvious (0.04 mg L-1) or no visual boron deficiency symptoms (0.08 and 0.80 mg L-1). At horticultural maturity, cross sections were taken in the upper and mid stem regions. The specimens were mounted on slides after being processed through a biological staining series. Boron availability was found to be correlated with the progressive internal deterioration of the stem which was observed histologically. An examination of staining patterns indicated that possibly a lignification process accompanies and contributes to hollow stem development. We have previously noted an increase in phenolic compounds and fiber content of broccoli produced under boron deficient conditions. The histological evidence of lignification further substantiates that boron deficiency induces changes in cell wall structure which may contribute to the development of hollow stem.
Larry S. Kennedy, Carl E. Sams, and Effin T. Graham
James E. Faust, Elizabeth Will, Xian Duan, and Effin T. Graham
Poinsettia stem breakage reduces plant quality and marketability. The cultivar `Freedom' is susceptible to stem breakage; however, the severity of stem breakage varies with crop and year. The following four experiments were conducted to determine the factors that influence stem breakage of `Freedom' poinsettias: 1) Cutting Stem Diameter. Cuttings were graded by stem diameter into small (5.0–5.4 mm), medium (6.0–6.7 mm), and large (7.3–8.3 mm) cuttings. 2) Premature Lateral Shoot Development.Small (1- to 3-cm-long) leaves near the shoot tip of the rooted cuttings were excised to remove the lateral shoots from apical dominance prior to pinching, thus causing the lateral shoots to develop prematurely. 3) Container Spacing. The control group was spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm at the time of pinching. The plants in one treatment were spaced to 23.1 × 23.1 cm 25 days after pinching, and then spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm 11 days later. The plants in a second treatment were grown pot-to-pot for 36 days after pinch, at which time they were spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm. 4) Node Number. Plants were pinched to eight nodes, while the control group was pinched to 5 nodes. Tissue development in the stem crotch; i.e., the area of lateral stem attachment to the main stem, was observed by microscopic examination of paraffin-embedded samples from each experiment every 2 weeks until anthesis. Lateral shoot strength was quantified by hanging a plastic beaker from the lateral stem and gradually adding water until stem crotch failure occurred. We observed that stem strength increased as cutting stem diameter increased. Plants pinched to eight nodes produced weaker lateral shoots than those pinched to five nodes. Premature lateral shoot development and container spacing did not affect stem strength.
Gary L. McDaniel, Effin T. Graham, and Kathleen R. Maleug
The effects of growth-retarding chemicals on stem anatomy were compared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. `Annette Hegg Dark Red'). Micrographic examinations revealed that secondary walls of nonsclerotic phloem fiber cells were either completely or greatly reduced by retardant treatment. Wall thickening of phloem fiber cells was eliminated by paclobutrazol foliar sprays at 25 mg·liter-1. Fiber cell development was reduced, but not eliminated, by sprays of chlormequat and ancymidol at standard rates, while the triazole uniconazole at 10 mg·liter-1 permitted only limited fiber wall thickening. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)-trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat); α -cyclopropylα- (4-methoxyphenyl) -5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol); (E)-(p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole): and (R*,R*)- β -[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]- α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)- 1 H-1,2,4,triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).