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- Author or Editor: Edward F. Gilman x
Due to the high cost of color separations, few plant materials texts have photographs and line drawings showing each plant at different times of the year and at different ages. CD-ROM computer technology allows the user ready access to this information at a reasonable cost. Horticulturists at the University of Florida have developed three CD-ROM discs for use throughout the U.S. The discs contain more than 3000 pages of text, extensive morphological characteristics and plant use suggestions, in addition to more than 2000 line drawings and nearly 3600 photographs of more than 1,800 plant species. Software developed for DOS and Windows allows the student to generate customized plant lists for landscape sites. Lists can be created to match specific site characteristics, desirable ornamental attributes, or both. Students can also use the programs to help identify unknown plant specimens. Other features allow viewing of insect and disease problems and access to up-to-date control recommendations.
This computer program, delivered-on a CD-ROM disc, develops a list of tree species and cultivars suited for a specific planting site. It requires little previous computer experience or tree knowledge to operate. Using multiple choice questions, the program automatically brings the user through above ground and below ground site analysis. This includes all the considerations known to influence proper species section for a planting site. Using C++ programming and the NASA-developed expert system shell called CUPS, a list of facts is generated as the user answers the questions. At the press of a button, the program finds trees that match the attributes the expert system placed on the facts list. The list can be further modified by choosing among ornamental and other tree attributes that might be of interest to the user. The tree list can be printed in several seconds. A typical run through the expert system takes 2 to 4 minutes to answer about 20 to 25 questions. The program contains data on 681 trees, more than 1,800 color photographs, and a 4-page fact sheet including 3 line drawings for each tree totaling more than 2,000 pages. The program can also be used as a reference by paging through the tree records to find information about specific trees. Each tree record lists on the computer monitor a large variety of data for the tree, allows you to view text about the tree, displays a line drawing of the entire tree, and displays up to seven photographs of each tree. The program will be distributed nationwide as a tool to help landscape architects, horticulturists and others select the right tree for the right place.
Roots of four-year-old, field-grown southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) were pruned in 1987 once during dormancy, following the first shoot growth flush or after the second growth flush, prior to transplanting in January 1988. By the end of the 1987 growing season, root pruning at all stages of growth reduced leaf number, tree height, trunk caliper, and total-tree leaf area and weight compared with unpruned controls. Total root weight was less for trees pruned during dormancy or following the first growth flush. Root pruning increased the proportion of fine roots (0 to 5mm-diameter class) to coarse roots (>5 to 10-mm diameter class). Shoot:root ratios were not affected by root pruning. During the first year after transplanting, root pruned trees grew at a slightly faster rate than unpruned trees but growth rates were similar for root pruned and unpruned trees the second and third year after transplanting. Trees required, at most, 1 year per inch of trunk caliper to become established in the landscape.
Complete landfills throughout the United States are being developed into parks, golf courses, nature areas, and other multiple-use facilities. A critical element in achieving these end uses is establishment and maintenance of trees on the final cover soil over the refuse layers. Factors that affect establishment include toxicity of landfill-generated gases (e.g., CO2) to root systems, low soil O2 supply, thin cover soil, low water-holding capacity, species sensitivity, and other factors (Flower et al., 1978). Species differ in their tolerance to landfills (Leone et al., 1979). Nyssa sylvatica (Marsh) and Gingko biloba [(L.) Karst] were tolerant of conditions in landfill cover soil, whereas Liquidambar styracifula (L.) was intolerant. This study was designed to determine if plant tolerance to landfill cover soil was related to root system depth.
Ninety-one percent to 95% of field-grown 3-year-old root systems of Gleditsia triacanthos L., Populus × generosa A. Henry, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh were outside of the harvestable root ball. Seventy-seven percent of the Populus root system was growing beyond the branch dripline, whereas 59% and 54% were outside of the Gleditsia and Fraxinus driplines, respectively. Root spread to branch spread ratios are discussed.
Quercus virginiana trees were container-grown (CG) or field-grown (FG) to a mean trunk diameter of 9.4 cm (3.7 inches), transplanted into sandy soil, and established with frequent or periodic irrigation. Three years after transplanting, trees were harvested with a 1.5-m- (60-inch-) diameter tree spade. Root number and root cross-sectional area was evaluated at the periphery of the tree spade-dug root ball. Despite similar increases in trunk diameter, FG trees had greater root number and root cross-sectional area than CG trees. The increase in root cross-sectional area occurred for roots 5 to 20 mm in diameter at the 0- to 25-cm and 75- to 100-cm soil depths. Irrigation frequency after transplanting had no effect on root number in FG trees; however, root number in CG trees decreased without frequent irrigation.
Roots of field-grown southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) were pruned once during dormancy, following the first shoot growth flush or after the second growth flush or twice at the following times: during dormancy and following first growth flush, during dormancy and following second growth flush, following first and second growth flush before transplanting in the winter. By the end of the growing season, root pruning at all stages of growth reduced leaf number, tree height, trunk caliper, and total tree leaf area and weight compared with unpruned controls. Total root weight was less for trees pruned during dormancy or following the first growth flush. Root pruning increased the proportion of fine roots (0- to 5-mm-diameter class) to coarse roots (> 5- to 10-mm-diameter class). Shoot: root dry weight ratios at transplanting were not affected by root pruning. Root-pruned trees grew at a faster rate following transplanting than unpruned trees. Despite these initial differences. trees in all treatments were the same size 1 year after transplanting.
Post-planting root development of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) on a well-drained site was compared with that on a site with a high water table. Container-grown red maple planted in 1985 were excavated in 1988 and cross-sectional root area (CSRA) calculated for roots >1 cm diameter, 5 cm beyond the edge of the original container rootball. Adventitious roots were generated in the field after planting, not in the container. Total adventitious CSRA was three times greater than CSRA of roots generated from the original container-produced root system. The number of adventitious roots (7.6) generated from the trunk and primary root after planting was greater than the number of roots originating from the existing root system (4.2). Adventitious root origin on both sites was within 5 cm of the soil surface, above the often circling, kinked, or twisted roots found within the container root ball. Four of the five largest roots were of adventitious origin. Root number, size, and growth rate were not modified by differences in cultural and environmental conditions between sites.
Horticulturists can access an extensive library of data, text, photographs, line drawings, and landscape designs from CD-ROM. In tests conducted in Florida, classroom students successfully accessed this library in a computer lab to study plant identification. This made it unnecessary to duplicate slides for student self-learning. It also builds confidence in students' ability to use computers. The Cooperative Extension Service and Divisions of Forestry in the southern states also have enjoyed access to this technology. Customers of their services have been pleased with the quick access to reliable information. Most are pleased with the information received over the telephone or during their visit to the office. Information generated by the computer programs on CD-ROM has been faxed, mailed. or hand-delivered to customers. Cooperative Extension employees and Master Gardeners are pleased with the quick, easy access to information. Many report that the programs have replaced the need to page through a large number of books to gain access to plant information. This saves time and gives employees a renewed sense of pride in their work.
Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L.) Var. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana' and `Hetzii' 1, 2 and 3 years after planting into a simulated landscape from 10-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system increased quadratically averaging 1, 2 m/year; whereas, mean branch spread increased at 0, 33 m/year, Three years after planting, root spread was 2, 75 times branch spread and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant (71-77%) during the first 3 years following planting. Root length density per unit area increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. In the first 2 years after planting shoot weight increased faster than root `weight. However, during the third year after planting, the root system increased in mass and size at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight within root-diameter classes, Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk area, branch spread and crown area.