The coupling phase linkages have been synthesized between the gene aw (without anthocyanin) and the male sterile gene ms15 (and its alleles ms26, ms47, and an Israeli source of male sterility). Less than 2 map units separate aw and ms15 on chromosome 2, providing a convenient seedling marker gene to rapidly identify male sterility for both inbred development and hybrid seed production. The seedling marker also provides a convenient marker to rapidly assess hybrid seed purity. Unique features of each of the alleles involved in male sterility and their use in inbred and hybrid development will be described.
Dae-Geun Oh and Edward C. Tigchelaar
The tangerine-virescent (tv) mutation was reported as a single gene somaclonal variant from tissue culture (Evans and Sharp 1963). A replicated field trial was conducted to characterize variation and stability in the phenotype of this tv somaclone and to compare it with the inbred parent from which it was reportedly derived.
Heritability and stability of the tv somaclonal variant was measured by comparing R3 end R4 lines of sexual progenies of the original tv variant and with its sexually derived inbred parent UC82B. Several additional variants were observed in these tv lines, including fruit shape, days to first flower, fruit weight, yield, plant type, and fertility. Eight sterile or semi-sterile plants were discovered in 6 of 39 R4 lines. Our results suggest that multiple genetic changes have occurred in the tv somaclonal variant and while the original tv mutant is stably inherited, additional genetic abnormalities occur following sexual reproduction.
Wilson R. Maluf and Edward C. Tigchelaar
Factors contributing to genetic differences in low temperature seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined by comparing the cold germinating (CG) accession PI 341985 the non-cold germinating (NCG) ‘Centennial’ and random F4 lines with varying low temperature germinating abilities. Rate of radicle elongation at 10°C was similar for both parental genotypes indicating that differences in emergence at 10° are not due to growth rates, but rather to more rapid initiation of germination activities in CG. Preincubation of seeds in hypertonic salt solutions enhanced rate of germination at 10°C equally in both lines, but did not substitute for the genetically based cold germinating ability. Low temperature germinating ability is associated with sprouting at high osmotic concentrations, and with a several fold higher rate of increase in peroxidase activity during the first 10 days of incubation at 10°. Germination at 10° of the NCG lines is improved by activated carbon in the germination media whereas no enhancement occurred in CG lines. Inhibition and/or delay in germination at 10° in NCG lines is due, in part, to low temperature induced formation of activated carbon adsorbable inhibitors of seed germination.
Dae-Geun Oh, Maria Chrzastek, and Edward C. Tigchelaar
Heterozygous multiple marker genetic stocks were synthesized by crossing three multiple genetic marker stocks to a common inbred parent PU812. The four parents and 3 F1's were cultured to obtain regenerants from leaf discs. Fifty four regenerants were derived from 3 F1's and 12 from the 4 parents, Among the regenerants, 16 plants were identified as tetraploid (24.2%); low fertility was usually associated with tetraploidy, however there were a few exceptions.
Selfed seeds, identified by cluster number, were harvested from sexual F1's and R0 plants for F2 progeny tests for the known marker genes. While there were no abnormal segregations for marker genes in the sexual progenies, 13 of 46 progenies from tissue culture derived regenerants showed significant deviations from expected normal segregations for a number of markers. Two of the abnormal progenies were identified as tetraploids by root-tip examinations; segregation ratios fit duplex random chromatid segregation for gene a on chromosome 11 and random chromosome segregation for gene c on chromosome 6. The cams of abnormal segregations in other progenies remain unknown. Results suggest that unknown genetic events arising during tissue culture may distort segregations for marker genes in the subsequent sexual progeny of tissue culture regenerants.
Francisco A. Ferreira, Dae-Geun Oh, and Edward C. Tigchelaar
Six F1's involving 6 multiple genetic marker stocks and a common inbred parent (PU812) were cultured to study the genotypic effect on regeneration ability and frequency of somaclonal variation in R0 for the known heterozygous marker genes. Leaf discs 7 mm in diameter were excised from young fully expanded leaves of 6-7 week old plants, and cultured on MS medium supplemented with cytokinins (Kinetin, Benzyladenine) and IAA. With few exceptions, the parents and F1's responded similarly to different hormone combinations. The beat hormone combinations for shoot formation were 4 mg/l Kinetin + 0.5 mg/l IAA and 2.3 mg/l BA + 0-0.18 mg/l IAA.
Only 2 of the 6 multiple marker stocks and the common inbred parent (PU812) were successfully regenerated. Four of the six hybrids between PU812 and the multiple markers were readily regenerated, whereas 2 hybrids failed to regenerate with several different hormonal combinations. No mutations have been observed for the known heterozygous markers in 76 R0 tissue culture regenerants.