Nancy Santana-Buzzy, Adriana Canto-Flick, Eduardo Balam-Uc and Marta Alvarez Gil
Jericó J. Bello-Bello, Adriana Canto-Flick, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Eunice Gómez-Uc, Manuel L. Robert, Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu and Nancy Santana-Buzzy
This article describes the performance of nodal segments from Habanero pepper (Capsicum. chinense) during shoot induction and elongation under different semisolid and liquid culture conditions with various degrees of ventilation in which they were exposed to different levels of immersion and growth regulators. The ethylene content in non-ventilated containers, the age of the explant donor plants as well as the effect of thidiazuron and paclobutrazol on shoot induction and of gibberellic acid and AgNO3 on shoot elongation were also evaluated. A temporary immersion bioreactor (BioMINT™) was used for the multiplication and elongation of isolated shoots with very good results. We report an efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Habanero pepper that produces plants with a high survival rate when transplanted to soil.
Adriana Canto-Flick, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Jericó Jabìn Bello-Bello, Carlos Lecona-Guzmán, Daniela Solís-Marroquín, Susana Avilés-Viñas, Eunice Gómez-Uc, Guadalupe López-Puc, Nancy Santana-Buzzy and Lourdes Georgina Iglesias-Andreu
The aim of this study was to determine the pungency level of different accessions of Habanero peppers. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to evaluate the content of total capsaicinoids in the whole fruit, placenta, and pericarp of 18 accessions of Habanero pepper from the germplasm bank of the Capsicum chinense species maintained in the Scientific Research Center of Yucatan [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán (CICY)]. Thirteen of these accessions belonged to the “orange type”, four to the “red type”, and one to the “yellow type”. During the study, the plants were cultivated and maintained under greenhouse conditions and the fruit was harvested only when it was completely ripe on the plant. The results show considerable intraspecific diversity for this characteristic as well as the existence of cultivars of this species that surpass the levels of pungency reported for Habanero peppers under the conditions evaluated.
Nancy Santana-Buzzy, Guadalupe López-Puc, Adriana Canto-Flick, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Eduardo Balam-Uc, Susana Avilés-Viñas, Daniela Solís-Marroquín, Carlos Lecona-Guzmán, Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello, Eunice Gómez-Uc and Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés
The ontogenesis of direct high-frequency somatic embryogenesis of C. chinense induced from hypocotyl was characterized through a histological analysis of the different phases in the histodifferentiation process during the development of the somatic embryo. The anatomical analysis was carried out since the hypocotyl segments were placed in the culture medium until 45 days of culture. The somatic embryos were induced and maintained in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (9.5 μm). Samples of tissues and organs were taken every 24 h, fixed in formalin acetic alcohol, and embedded in plastic resin. They were cut into serial sections (5 μm) and stained with toluidine blue. The analysis revealed that the proembryogenic cells originated just from provascular hypocotyl cells. Provascular cells acquired the embryogenic competence 48 h after induction and an intense mitotic division was observed and embryogenic structures were generated first along the vascular strands, which subsequently evolved into somatic embryos. After 2 weeks, there were observed embryos at different stages of development (preglobular, globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped, and cotyledonary). This is the first report dealing with the ontogenesis of the direct somatic embryogenesis of C. chinense, and it is the most complete histological characterization carried out on somatic embryogenesis in the Capsicum genus to date.