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Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) were planted in the peripheries of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) fields in the spring growing seasons of 1997 and 1998 to evaluate their effectiveness as a trap crop to manage the diamondback moth (DBM) [Plutella xylostella (L.)]. The numbers of DBM never exceeded the action threshold for application of insecticides in any of thefields that were completely surrounded by collards, but did exceed the action threshold in three of the fields without collards on four sampling dates in 1998. In both years, the numbers of DBM larvae in the collards exceeded the action threshold of 0.3 total larvae/plant in eight of nine fields. Larval counts in cabbage surrounded with collards were not significantly higher than in the conventionally planted cabbage, even though the number of pesticide applications was reduced in the former. The few pesticide applications in fields surrounded by collards probably targeted the cabbage looper [Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)], which was not impeded by the collards from infesting the interior cabbage. There was no significant reduction in marketability, and damage to cabbage was similar to that in fields where collards were planted and in fields where only conventional pesticides were used. The reduced number of pesticide sprays, as well as the high concentration of host larvae in the collards, may help maintain populations of natural enemies of DBM in the agroecosystem. Planting collards in field peripheries is a potentially effective tactic to manage DBM in cabbage.

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Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) were planted in the peripheries of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) fields in the spring growing seasons of 1997 and 1998 to evaluate their effectiveness as a trap crop to manage the diamondback moth (DBM) [Plutella xylostella (L.)]. The numbers of DBM never exceeded the action threshold for application of insecticides in any of the fields that were completely surrounded by collards, but did exceed the action threshold in three of the fields without collards on four sampling dates in 1998. In both years, the numbers of DBM larvae in the collards exceeded the action threshold of 0.3 total larvae/plant in eight of nine fields. Larval counts in cabbage surrounded with collards were not significantly higher than in the conventionally planted cabbage, even though the number of pesticide applications was reduced in the former. The few pesticide applications in fields surrounded by collards probably targeted the cabbage looper [Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)], which was not impeded by the collards from infesting the interior cabbage. There was no significant reduction in marketability, and damage to cabbage was similar to that in fields where collards were planted and in fields where only conventional pesticides were used. The reduced number of pesticide sprays, as well as the high concentration of host larvae in the collards, may help maintain populations of natural enemies of DBM in the agroecosystem. Planting collards in field peripheries is a potentially effective tactic to manage DBM in cabbage.

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Because peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) grows anew from rhizomes each spring, methods to measure the energy stored in the peppermint rhizomes would be useful. Our objective was to compare three methods of measuring carbohydrate in peppermint samples taken throughout a growing season. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) is a measure of the water- and acid-soluble sugars. Etiolated growth measurements of nonstructural biomass (NSB) are a reliable method for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) taproots. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another method that has been used to determine TNC of alfalfa. Rhizomes were sampled monthly from four locations within a field. The NSB was correlated (r = 0.74) with the TNC means from each sampling date. The NIRS calibration was highly correlated with the TNC of all samples (R 2=0.96). Both NSB and TNC decreased in summer and increased in the fall as the plant stored carbohydrate for winter survival and regrowth. Any of the three methods could be used to study energy storage, although NIRS is the quickest, and NSB the least technologically sophisticated. Based on the positive results of NIRS, a more comprehensive calibration is warranted.

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Red drupelet reversion (RDR) is a postharvest disorder of blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) in which fully black drupelets revert to red after harvest. This disorder can negatively impact consumer perception of fresh-market blackberries. The cause of RDR is hypothesized to be related to intracellular damage sustained because of mechanical and environmental stress during and after harvest. Cultivars differ in susceptibility to this disorder; and cultural factors, including nitrogen rate, harvest and shipping practices, and climate during harvest, influence RDR severity. In this 2-year study, seven genotypes (cultivars and advanced selections) developed in the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture (UA) blackberry breeding program, with a range of fruit textures, were evaluated to determine whether firmness was correlated with RDR. In addition, fruit was harvested at four different times (7:00 am, 10:00 am, 1:00 pm, and 4:00 pm) to investigate whether harvest time influences RDR. All seven genotypes were harvested at the four times on two harvest dates per year and evaluated for RDR and firmness after 1 week of cold storage (5 °C). Fruit harvested early in the day had less RDR, with 7:00 am harvests having the least RDR in both years. Significant genotypic differences in RDR and fruit firmness were found in each year. Firmness was negatively correlated with RDR in 2018 and 2019. These results indicate that growers may be able to reduce the prevalence of RDR by choosing cultivars with firm fruit texture and harvesting early in the day.

Open Access

Current methods of making crop cover estimates are time-consuming and tend to be highly variable. A low-cost, digital, red/near-infrared band ratioing camera (Dycam Inc., Chatsworth, Calif.) and accompanying software (S. Heinold, Woodland Hills, Calif.) were evaluated for estimating crop cover. The camera was tested using a set of images having leaf areas of known sizes with different crop, soil, and lighting conditions. In the field, camera-based crop cover estimates were compared to light bar measured estimates. Results indicate that the camera and image analysis software are capable of estimating percent crop cover over a range of soil, crop, and lighting environments. Camera-based crop cover estimates were highly correlated with light bar estimates (tomato r 2 = 0.96, cotton r 2 = 0.98). Under the conditions tested, the camera appears to be a useful tool for monitoring crop growth in the field.

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No-till processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) production in four winter cover crop-derived mulches was evaluated in 1997 and 1998 in Five Points, Calif. The effectiveness of two medics, `Sava' snail medic (Medicago scutellata Mill.) (sava), and `Sephi' barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn.) (sephi), and two cereal/legume cover crop mixtures, triticale/`Lana' woolypod vetch (X Triticosecale Wittm./Vicia dasycarpa Ten.) (triticale/vetch) and rye/`Lana' woolypod vetch (Secale cereale L./V. dasycarpa) (rye/vetch), was compared with two conventionally tilled fallow controls (with and without herbicide) (fallow+h and fallow-h) in suppressing weeds and maintaining yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. The comparison was conducted as a split plot, with three N fertilization rates (0, 100, and 200 lb/acre; 0, 112, and 224 kg·ha-1) as main plots and cover crops and fallow controls as subplots. Tomato seedlings were transplanted 3 weeks after the cover crops had been mowed and sprayed with herbicide. There were no significant differences in weed cover in the no-till cover crop treatments relative to the fallow controls in 1997. Early season weed suppression in rye/vetch and triticale/vetch plots was similar to herbicide-treated fallow (fallow+h) in 1998, however, later in the 1998 season weed suppression was best in the fallow+h. Tissue N was highest in the fallow treatments in both 1997 and 1998. Yields were highest in the triticale/vetch and fallow and lowest in sephi treatments in 1997, but there were no differences among treatments in 1998. These results demonstrate the feasibility of no-till mulch production of furrow irrigated processing tomatoes and identify opportunities for further optimization of the system.

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Zonate leaf spot (ZLS) caused by Cristulariella moricola, apparently a rare disease of tomato, was identified in a commercial tomato field in southeastern Arkansas in June, 1991. Although lesions of ZLS were similar to early blight (Alternaria solani) lesions, which were also present, there were several distinctions between the lesions: the concentric rings in lesions of ZLS were more symmetrical than early blight lesions, no distinct chlorosis was associated with the lesions, and ZLS lesions were not localized near the bottom of the tomato canopy. Koch's postulates were completed on several greenhouse grown tomato cultivars. Inoculum was produced on autoclaved tomato leaves incubated at 20 C and consisted of large (300-400 um long) “Christmas tree” shaped propagules. When free moisture was maintained at 20 C, large (> 1 cm), rapidly expanding, water-soaked lesions were observed on leaves of inoculated plants 1-3 days after inoculation. Lower humidities caused lesions to rapidly dry out. Epidemiological factors, such as temperature, leaf wetness, and cultivar susceptibility also have been examined.

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Conservation tillage (CT) row crop production is currently not widely adopted in California. Recently, however, interest in evaluating the potential of CT systems to reduce production costs and improve soil quality is growing in many areas in the state. In 1997 and 1998, we evaluated four cover crop mulches (rye/vetch, triticale/vetch, Sava medic, and Sephi medic) in a CT-transplanted tomato system relative to the conventional winter fallow (CF) practice. In both years, yields were comparable to the CF under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches. Earthworm populations after 2 years of CT production were increased 2- to 5-fold under mulches relative to the CF system. Soil carbon was increased by 16% and 6% after 2 years of CT production under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches, respectively. Weed suppression under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch was comparable to the CF with herbicide system early in the season in both years but was maintained through harvest in only one season. Soil water storage (0-90 cm) was similar at the beginning of the tomato season in triticale/vetch, rye/vetch, and fallow plots but was higher under the mulches during much of the last 45 days of the 1998 season. Further refinement of CT practices in California's vegetable production regions is needed before wider adoption is likely.

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Previously published research suggests that the yield and water-use efficiency of C-3 plants can be enhanced through foliar-applied methanol. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) grown in Oregon at Klamath Falls, Madras, and Ontario were subjected to repeated foliar methanol treatments during the 1993 season. Methanol was applied at 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration with Triton X-100 sticker-spreader at 0.1%, and methanol was applied at 20% and 40% without Triton X-100. Methanol had no effect on tuber yield, size distribution, grade, or specific gravity at any location. Tuber stem-end fry color showed no methanol response at the two locations where it was measured. Soil water potential (measured at Madras and Ontario) showed no difference in water-use efficiency between methanol-treated and nontreated potato plants.

Free access

Abstract

Concentrations of patulin in blue mold lesions caused by Penicillium expansum Lk. ex Thom in pears and stone fruits were similar to those reported for apples. Of fruits tested, only the plum was a poor substrate for accumulation of the mycotoxin. The total patulin within disease lesions increased as the lesions enlarged. However, the concentration of patulin varied considerably, with the largest lesions usually yielding the lowest concentrations. Little or no patulin permeated healthy tissue surrounding the disease lesions unless fruits were overripe or had senescent breakdown.

Open Access