North Carolina is a leading poultry producer in the United States. Thus, much waste by-product also is produced and must be handled in an environmentally responsible way. Using poultry and similar waste products as a fertilizer source for vegetables, such as sweetpotatoes, might serve as a viable use option. Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of animal wastes and sludges as nutrient sources for sweetpotatoes. The effects of municipal solid waste, composted litter, fresh litter, and synthetic fertilizers were compared for their effects on yield and quality of `Regal' and `Beauregard' sweetpotato varieties. The test was planted as a split-plot randomized complete-block design with each treatment replicated four times. Planting was 3 June, and harvest was 27 Sept. 1994. Yields were similar when fertilized with either organic or synthetic nutrient sources. Root quality was excellent, regardless of fertilizer, because few culls resulted, and there were no differences between treatments. Sweetpotatoes can be successfully grown with various organic nutrient sources without affecting quality or yield and might be marketed as “organically grown” produce. This label may command a higher market price than sweetpotatoes grown traditionally with synthetic nutrient sources.
William E. Little, Jonathan R. Schultheis and Robert L. Mikkelsen
Theekshana C. Jayalath, George E. Boyhan, Elizabeth L. Little, Robert I. Tate and Suzanne O’Connell
High tunnels may help mitigate unfavorable climate and weather on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production leading to greater yields and quality, yet information for using these systems in the Southeast region is lacking. This study evaluated the effect of high tunnels and three planting dates (PDs) (early March, late-March, and mid-April) on spring organic lettuce production. A 25% to 36% increase in marketable fresh weight for butterhead and romaine lettuce, respectively, was observed under high tunnels compared with the field in 2016, but there was no difference among the two growing systems in 2015. High tunnel lettuce was harvested ≈2 to 7 days earlier than in the field in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Pest and disease pressure (e.g., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) as well as the incidence of physiological disorders (i.e., bolting, tip burn, and undersized heads) were similar between the two systems indicating that our high tunnel system did not provide a benefit for these issues. High tunnel air temperatures were ≈3 to 5 °C greater on the coldest mornings and only 1 °C greater on the warmest days compared with the field. Average relative humidity (RH), leaf wetness, and light levels were all lower under the high tunnels. Our results indicate that high tunnels can help increase the production of spring organic lettuce in Georgia, but that the advantage may depend on yearly weather conditions.
George E. Boyhan, Julia W. Gaskin, Elizabeth L. Little, Esendugue G. Fonsah and Suzanne P. Stone
Certified organic production is challenging in the southeastern United States due to high weed, insect, and disease pressure. Maintaining and building soil organic carbon in midscale organic production systems can also be difficult due to the warm, moist conditions that promote decomposition. Focusing on cool-season cash crops paired with warm-season cover crops may help alleviate these production problems. This 3-year study (2011–13) evaluated two vegetable rotations of cool-season crops with cover crops for their productivity, disease management, and soil building potential in Watkinsville, GA. In the first rotation, cool-season cash crops included onion (Allium cepa), strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), and potato (Solanum tuberosum). These crops were rotated with green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), oats/austrian winter pea (Avena sativa/Pisum sativum ssp. arvense), southernpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea). In the second rotation, cool-season cash crops included onion, broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica group), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus). These were rotated with millet (Urochloa ramosa), sunn hemp, egyptian wheat/iron clay pea (Sorghum sp./Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum × sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanese)/iron clay pea. Onion yields in both rotations were at least 80% of average yields in Georgia. Lettuce yields were at least double the average yields in Georgia and were comparable to national averages in the 2nd and 3rd years of the study. Strawberry yields in these rotations were lower than Georgia averages in all 3 years with a trend of lower yields over the course of the study. By contrast, potato, although lower than average yields in Georgia increased each year of the study. Broccoli yields in the first year were substantially lower than average Georgia yields, but were comparable to average yields in the 2nd year. Carrot remained less than half of average Georgia yields. Green bean were half of average Georgia yields in the 2nd year and were comparable to average yields in the 3rd year. As expected from what is observed in cool-season organic vegetable production in Georgia, disease pressure was low. Cover crops maintained soil organic carbon (C) with a small increase in active C; however, there was a net loss of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN). Active C averaged across both rotations at the beginning of the study at 464 mg·kg−1 and averaged 572 mg·kg−1 at the end of the study. On the basis of this study, using cover crops can maintain soil carbon without the addition of carbon sources such as compost. Finally, longer term work needs to be done to assess soil management strategies.
S.M. Southwick, M.E. Rupert, J.T. Yeager, K.G. Weis, B.C. Kirkpatrick, E.L. Little and B.B. Westerdahl
Bacterial canker (BC), caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall, is a serious disease of stone fruits that occurs most commonly in young orchards. Many factors can predispose or increase the risk that trees develop BC such as sandy or compacted soils, low soil pH, inadequate tree nutrition, frost or cold injury, genetic susceptibility, and presence of ring nematode, Criconemella spp. However, questions still remain about how these factors influence disease incidence in `French' prune, Prunus domestica L. In 1991, we established a 3.64-ha plot in Winters, Calif., to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation on growth responses and yield of young prune trees. N was applied through a surface drip system at 0, 0.11, 0.23, and 0.45 kg actual N/tree per year as UN32 urea (Unocal, Sacramento Calif.) with 1/10th of the total amount delivered per application every other week from May through September starting in 1992. Two other treatments were also included: 0.064 kg N/tree per year through surface drip if % leaf N dropped below 2.3%, and 0.23 kg N/tree/year delivered in small amounts every irrigation via an automated buried drip system. Symptoms of BC began appearing primarily in the 0- and 0.064-N treatments in 1993. During 1995 and 1996, we demonstrated highly significant relationships between low N status measured in leaves and increased incidence of BC. Furthermore, we determined levels of N application via drip irrigation, which resulted in good yields, vigorous growth, and lack of BC in our test plots, but also minimized N use and potential for nitrate leaching into groundwater. These and additional results will be presented.