Experiments with field-grown hybrid Paradox (Juglans hindsii × J. Regia) walnut trees were conducted to assess the effects of stock plant water status, auxin application method, and the addition of spermine on adventitious root formation in stem cuttings. A 2-fold increase in rooting was noted when semihardwood cuttings were collected from dry (midday Ψw = –1.3 MPa) stock plants compared to the same trees six days later when fully hydrated (midday Ψw = –0.6 MPa). Spermine, when combined with potassium indolebutyric acid (KIBA) and applied as a quick dip, enhanced the rooting percentage in hardwood cuttings (54%) compared to controls treated with KIBA alone (18%). Spermine had no effect when it was applied together with KIBA using a toothpick application, producing 65% rooting compared to controls which had 75% rooting. By itself, spermine had no effect on rooting. The toothpick method for applying rooting compounds resulted in significantly higher rooting percentages for hardwood cuttings, but not for semihardwood cuttings. Combining spermine with KIBA had no effect on rooting of semihardwood cuttings.
J.R. McKenna and E.G. Sutter
K.A. Shackel, V. Novello, and E.G. Sutter
The relative contribution of stomatal and cuticular conductance to transpiration from whole tissue-cultured apple shoots of Malus pumila Mill. M.26 was determined with a modified steady state porometer. When shoots were exposed to 90% RH and high boundary layer conductance, large (73%) and, in some eases, rapid (2 to 3 hours) reductions in leaf conductance occurred, indicating functional stomata. Stomatal closure was also observed microscopically. A maximum estimate for the cuticular conductance of these apple leaves was 18 to 40 mmol·m-2·s-1, which is lower than previous estimates and close to the upper limit of naturally occurring leaf cuticular conductances. Hence, both stomatal and cuticular restrictions of water loss appear to be of importance in determining the water balance of tissue-cultured apple loots. The pathway of water transport in relation to water stress of tissue-cultured shoots is also discussed.
Mark A. Ritenour, Ellen G. Sutter, David M. Williams, and Mikal E. Saltveit
This study was undertaken to determine if endogenous IAA content and axillary bud development correlate with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induction and russet spotting (RS) susceptibility among RS susceptible and resistant cultivars of Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Final levels of ethylene-induced PAL activity and RS development were highly correlated among cultivars, field conditions, and harvest dates. Harvested Iceberg lettuce midribs contained relatively low amounts of free IAA (maximum of 5.2 ng·g-1 fresh weight). There was poor correlation between free IAA content in lettuce leaf midribs and final RS development among all cultivars, growing conditions, and harvest dates. Axillary bud development, as measured by the number of visible buds per head, bud weight, or bud length, were not significantly correlated with final RS development or midrib IAA content. Cultivars with higher initial free IAA content lost much of their IAA after 8 days storage at 5C in air ± ethylene.