A large horticultural database and an electronic retrieval system for extension education programs were developed using compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM) and World Wide Web (WWW) as the medium for information delivery. Object-oriented database techniques were used to organize the information. Conventional retrieval techniques including hypertext, full text searching, and expert systems were integrated into a complete package for accessing information stored in the database. A multimedia user interface was developed to provide a variety of capabilities, including computer graphics and high-resolution digitized images. Information for the CD-ROM was gathered from extension publications that were tagged using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) -based document markup language (International Standards Organization, 1986). Combining funds from the state legislator with grants from the USDA, and other institutions, the CD-ROM system has been implemented in all 67 county extension offices in Florida and is available to the public as a for sale CD-ROM. Public access is also available to most of the database through the WWW.
E.F. Gilman and H. Beck
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana', and `Hetzii') 1, 2, and 3 years after planting from 1l-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system expanded quadratically, whereas mean branch spread increased linearly. Three years after planting, root spread was 2.75 times branch spread, and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant for each cultivar during the 3 years following planting. Root length density increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. During the first 2 years after planting, shoot mass increased faster than root mass. In the 3rd year, the root system increased in mass at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight. Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk cross-sectional area, branch spread, and crown area.
E.F. Gilman and R.J. Beeson
The root : shoot ratio for Ilex cassine L. grown 7 months in copper-treated containers was less than in nontreated containers. There was less dry weight for roots <5 mm in diameter in copper-treated containers than in nontreated containers in the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Dry weight of roots >5 mm in diameter within the rootball were not affected by copper hydroxide treatment. Coating the interior of a plastic container with cupric hydroxide eliminated coarse roots (> 5 mm in diameter) and significantly reduced fine root weight from the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Fine roots inside the rootball did not replace fine roots lacking in the outer 1 cm.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Post-planting root development of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) on a well-drained site was compared with that on a site with a high water table. Container-grown red maple planted in 1985 were excavated in 1988 and cross-sectional root area (CSRA) calculated for roots >1 cm diameter, 5 cm beyond the edge of the original container rootball. Adventitious roots were generated in the field after planting, not in the container. Total adventitious CSRA was three times greater than CSRA of roots generated from the original container-produced root system. The number of adventitious roots (7.6) generated from the trunk and primary root after planting was greater than the number of roots originating from the existing root system (4.2). Adventitious root origin on both sites was within 5 cm of the soil surface, above the often circling, kinked, or twisted roots found within the container root ball. Four of the five largest roots were of adventitious origin. Root number, size, and growth rate were not modified by differences in cultural and environmental conditions between sites.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L.) Var. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana' and `Hetzii' 1, 2 and 3 years after planting into a simulated landscape from 10-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system increased quadratically averaging 1, 2 m/year; whereas, mean branch spread increased at 0, 33 m/year, Three years after planting, root spread was 2, 75 times branch spread and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant (71-77%) during the first 3 years following planting. Root length density per unit area increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. In the first 2 years after planting shoot weight increased faster than root `weight. However, during the third year after planting, the root system increased in mass and size at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight within root-diameter classes, Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk area, branch spread and crown area.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Roots of field-grown southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) were pruned once during dormancy, following the first shoot growth flush or after the second growth flush or twice at the following times: during dormancy and following first growth flush, during dormancy and following second growth flush, following first and second growth flush before transplanting in the winter. By the end of the growing season, root pruning at all stages of growth reduced leaf number, tree height, trunk caliper, and total tree leaf area and weight compared with unpruned controls. Total root weight was less for trees pruned during dormancy or following the first growth flush. Root pruning increased the proportion of fine roots (0- to 5-mm-diameter class) to coarse roots (> 5- to 10-mm-diameter class). Shoot: root dry weight ratios at transplanting were not affected by root pruning. Root-pruned trees grew at a faster rate following transplanting than unpruned trees. Despite these initial differences. trees in all treatments were the same size 1 year after transplanting.
T.K. Broschat, D.R. Sandrock, M.L. Elliott, and E.F. Gilman
In a series of three experiments, st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum ‘Floratam’), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), canna (Canna × generalis ‘Richard Wallace’), pentas (Pentas lanceolata), allamanda (Allamanda cathartica ‘Hendersoni’), and nandina (Nandina domestica) were grown on highly leached sand soils in two locations in Florida. They were fertilized with typical turfgrass fertilizers having high nitrogen (N)-to-potassium (K) ratios and no magnesium (Mg), or several types of landscape palm fertilizers having low N:K ratios and 100% of their N, K, and Mg in controlled release form. St. augustinegrass, pentas, nandina, and allamanda visual quality were similar for all fertilizer types tested. However, cannas and areca palms had higher visual qualities when fertilized with an 8N–0.9P–10.0K–4Mg palm fertilizer than with higher N:K ratio turf fertilizers. High N:K turf fertilizers resulted in K deficiency severity equivalent to that of unfertilized controls and Mg deficiency that was more severe than unfertilized areca palms.
S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, D.R. Sandrock, M. Paz, C. Wiese, and Meghan M. Brennan
Although new and innovative measures to reduce landscape water consumption are being sought, traditional methods of water restrictions and plant selection prevail. Species native to North America are often promoted as drought tolerant with little information to support or refute such claims. Furthermore, species performance is unknown in maintained environments such as commercial and residential landscapes. Thus, 10 native and 10 exotic species, commonly used in landscapes, were evaluated independently for postestablishment growth and aesthetics under irrigated and nonirrigated landscape conditions. Growth indices were recorded monthly, with dieback and plant density evaluated at termination of the experiment. At termination of the experiment, canopy size of eight native [beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus), yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’), virginia sweetspire (Itea virginica), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), chickasaw plum (Prunus angustifolia), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), and coontie (Zamia floridana)] and eight exotic [golden dewdrop (Duranta erecta), cape jasmine (Gardenia augusta), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), oleander (Nerium oleander), japanese pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira), indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica), sweet viburnum (Viburnum odoratissimum), and sandankwa viburnum (V. suspensum)] species were similar for irrigated and nonirrigated treatments. Irrigation resulted in larger canopy sizes for two native [walter's viburnum (V. obovatum) and inkberry (I. glabra)] and two nonnative [japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) and fringe flower (Loropetalum chinensis)] species. Among the native species with larger canopy sizes under irrigated conditions, all are indigenous to swamps and streams. With the exception of virginia sweetspire, plant density and dieback were similar for irrigated and nonirrigated plants of all taxa examined. Irrigated virginia sweetspire plants had higher plant density and dieback ratings than nonirrigated plants. Results indicate that, aesthetically, irrigated and nonirrigated plants were similar. Data emphasize the importance of selecting plant material adapted to existing environmental landscape conditions.
S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, M. Paz, and K.A. Moore
Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxt. ‘Burfordii Nana’ (dwarf burford holly), Pittosporum tobira [Dryand]. ‘Variegata’ (pittosporum), and Viburnum odorotissimum Ker Gawl. (sweet viburnum) were transplanted into field plots in an open-sided, clear polyethylene-covered shelter to evaluate growth, aesthetic quality, and establishment rates in response to 2-, 4-, or 7-d irrigation frequencies. Establishment was delayed 1 to 2 months for I. cornuta ‘Burrford Nana’ irrigated every 7 d compared with 2- and 4-d frequencies; however, growth and aesthetic quality were similar among treatments. Plants irrigated every 7 d also had higher cumulative water stress levels. Leaf area, shoot dry weight, and total biomass increased among P. tobira ‘Variegata’ and V. odorotissimum irrigated every 2 d. Pittosporum tobira ‘Variegata’ and V. odorotissimum irrigated every 2 d also had greater canopy size and root dry weight, respectively. Neither cumulative water stress nor establishment was affected by irrigation frequency for either species.
A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz
Previous research on #3 nursery container-grown shrubs suggests that some common shrub species could be established in the Florida landscape under natural rainfall when irrigated with 3 L of water every 4 days in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 8b and 9a or every 2 days in zone 10b until first roots reached the canopy edge (≈20 weeks after planting). The current study evaluated the effects of these irrigation frequency recommendations on plant vigor, canopy growth, root growth, and aesthetic quality of 21 common landscape shrub species (10 Florida native and 11 non-native) planted in Florida in zones 8b, 9a, or 10b. Data suggests that it may be appropriate to adopt the 20-week low-volume irrigation recommendations for the establishment of a wide variety of container-grown Florida native and non-native shrubs. However, Florida native and non-native shrubs should be monitored for symptoms of drought stress for 2 years after planting.