Phytophthora ramorum survived in potting media infested with sporangia or chlamydospores, allowing the pathogen to remain undetected while disseminated geographically. Chlamydospores or oospores of P. ramorum, Pythium irregulare, Thielaviopsis basicola, and Cylindrocladium scoparium produced in vermiculite culture were used to infest potting media. Infested media in plastic plug flats were treated with aerated steam mixtures from 45 to 70 °C for 30 min. In a second experiment, infested media were fumigated in polyethylene bags with a concentration series of metam sodium ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 mL·L−1. Survival of the pathogens was determined by selective baiting or direct plating the infested media on PARP selective medium. Assays indicated that all pathogens in the infested potting media were killed by aerated steam heat treatments of 50 °C or higher. Metam sodium concentrations of 1.0 mL·L−1 of medium or greater also eradicated all pathogens from the potting medium and soil. These results show that aerated steam treatment or fumigation with metam sodium can effectively sanitize soil-less potting media infested with P. ramorum or other soilborne pathogens, as well as P. ramorum-infested soil beneath infected plant containers. In addition, steam treatments to 70 °C did not melt plastic plug trays.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
Formation and function of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are affected by levels of fertility in soil or fertilizers applied to soilless container mixes. For AM fungi, phosphorus (P) is the main element influencing colonization of host plant roots. The question addressed in this study was whether inorganic or organic fertilizers were more compatible with the formation and function of AM. Several controlled-release inorganic (CRI) fertilizers were compared with several organic (OR) fertilizers at different rates (½× to 4× the recommended rate) to determine (1) threshold levels of tolerance by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in relation to root colonization, and (2) growth responses of `Guardsman' bunching onion (Allium cepa) and `Orange Cupido' miniature rose (Rosa spp.) plants grown in a soilless potting mix or sandy loam soil. AM colonization in soil was greatly decreased or totally inhibited by CRI fertilizers with high P content at the 2× rate or greater, whereas colonization was decreased but never eliminated by low-P OR fertilizers at the 3× rate or greater. Shoot growth of onions was similar with or without AM inoculation when fertilized with CRI, but in general was only enhanced by OR fertilizers if inoculated with AM fungi, compared to the noninoculated controls. Shoot and root growth of onions were significantly increased by AM inoculation when OR fertilizers were used at the 1× rate. In contrast, root growth was not increased by the combination of CRI fertilizers and AM fungal inoculation. Inoculation of miniature roses grown in sandy loam amended with 25% peat and perlite and fertilized with all the CRI or OR fertilizers resulted in high AM colonization, but without much AM-induced growth increase except where OR fertilizers or CRI fertilizers with low P were used. In a soilless potting mix, growth of miniature roses was less with OR fertilizers at the rates used than CRI fertilizers, but mycorrhiza formation was greater in the former unless P was low in the latter. These results indicate that release of nutrients from organic fertilizers, as a result of microbial activity, favors AM establishment and function more than most inorganic fertilizers unless P levels of the latter are low.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
Formation of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) has been inhibited in soilless potting mixes that usually contain some proportion of peat moss. The cause of the inhibition has been thought to be high fertilizer P content in the media that suppresses spread of the fungal symbiont in the root tissue. However, there has also been some suggestion that the peats themselves may contribute to the inhibition. That possibility was explored in this study. A sandy-loam soil, in which mycorrhizae consistently enhance plant growth under P-limiting conditions, was amended with six different peats. Onions (Allium cepa 'White Lisbon'), as an indicator host, were grown in the mixes under P-limiting conditions, and were inoculated or not with the AM fungi Glomus deserticola or Gigaspora rosea. Plant growth response to inoculation with AM fungi (AMF) varied with the type of peat and AMF isolate. Inoculated plants generally had the highest root biomass when grown in soil amended with peat. Root colonization by the two fungal symbionts was also affected differently by different peat amendments. Root colonization by Glomus deserticola and Gigaspora rosea was inhibited by at least half of the peat types. However, the types of peat inhibitory to Gigaspora rosea colonization were not the same as those inhibitory to Glomus deserticola colonization. These results indicate that different peat amendments can suppress or enhance mycorrhiza formation on onion roots and resultant growth benefit under P-limiting conditions, depending on the mycorrhizal fungus used.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
Coconut fiber dust (coir) is being used as a peat substitute or amendment to potting mixes with varied results. However, its microbial composition and compatibility with beneficial microbes that might be added to growth media in the nursery, such as mycorrhizal fungi, has not been determined. In this study, coir was amended to a peat-based medium (15%, 30%, 45%, and 60% by volume) to determine its effects on growth of several ornamental plants and on the formation and function of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. Mycorrhizae formed as well, and usually better, in all the coir-amended peat treatments as in peat alone. The magnitude of growth enhancement due to mycorrhizae was small for the plants tested in these media compared to that which usually occurs in soil-based media. In this experiment, plant growth responses appeared to be independent of level of mycorrhizal colonization and were plant species dependent. Consistent growth enhancement from mycorrhizae only occurred with marigold (Tagetes patula). With germander (Teucrium fruticans), growth was depressed with mycorrhizal inoculation in the medium composed of 60% coir. Growth of lavender (Lavandula augustifolia) was depressed in all coir-amended media, with or without AM inoculation, compared to the nonamended control. These results confirm previous reports of varied response of plant species to coir, and indicate the lack of any detrimental effects of coir on mycorrhiza formation.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
Composted materials with high humic and microbial content, and their water extracts, are increasingly used in the nursery industry as potting mix components or as liquid amendments for the purposes of enhancing plant growth. Common speculation is that such materials either contain beneficial microbes or stimulate those in or added to the medium, such as vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, known to have growth-stimulating effects on plants. Experiments were conducted to determine if one such compost enhanced plant growth by stimulating VAM fungi or other growth-enhancing microbes, by simply providing limiting nutrients [phosphorus (P)], or a combination of the two. Highly mycorrhiza-responsive onion (Allium cepa) `White Lisbon' was used to evaluate the interactions of composted grape pomace (CGP), the VAM fungus Glomus intraradices, and preplant soil heat treatment on onion growth under P-limiting conditions. CGP and its water extract stimulated onion growth under P-limiting conditions in the absence of VAM; the extract was more effective than the granular CGP. Growth was enhanced further by addition of G. intraradices, and the extract enhanced its colonization of roots. Heat pretreatment of the soil inconsistently affected growth-enhancement by CGP or its extract. Thus, inoculating plant roots with mycorrhizal fungi in combination with this composted organic amendment or its extract was beneficial. The effect could have been due to the CGP providing a source of P to overcome the P-limiting conditions, and to the mycorrhizal fungus enhancing P uptake by its extraradical hyphae and thereby increasing nutrient-use efficiency.
David E. Davis, John A. Barden, and Ross E. Byers
In 1997 and 1998, we determined the effects of defoliation on return bloom and fruit set following a light cropping year. In one study, `Braeburn' trees were hand-thinned to a crop density (CD) of 3 fruit/cm 2 trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) in late May 1997, and then either completely defoliated or half of the tree defoliated by hand on one of five dates between June and Sept. 1997. Compared to a nondefoliated control, both whole and half-tree defoliation on all dates reduced fruit count and yield efficiency (kilograms per square centimeter of TCSA) and affected fruit weight, starch, firmness, and soluble solids in 1997. In 1998, return bloom and fruit set were reduced by most 1997 defoliation treatments. Compared to other dates, defoliation on 3 July caused the greatest reduction in return bloom in both whole and half-defoliated trees. In another study, `Braeburn' trees were hand-thinned to a CD of 5 in late May 1998; complete defoliation by hand on 1, 15, or 29 July reduced return bloom and fruit set in 1999; the 1 July treatment resulted in zero return bloom. `Golden Delicious' and `York' trees were thinned to a CD of 3 in late May 1998 and were hand-defoliated on 21 July or 12 August by removing every other leaf or removing three of every four leaves over the entire tree. In 1999, return bloom and spur and lateral fruit set were reduced by all defoliation treatments. Fruit set was most reduced by the 12 Aug. treatment. Fruit set for `York' was lower than for `Golden Delicious' in all cases.
A.R. Gonzalez, D.E. Smith, A. Mauromoustakos, and M. Davis
A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of producing and processing immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) green pods by using the same technology used for green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The cowpea cultivar Bettersnap developed for green pod production and the green bean cultivars Benton and OSU-5402 were produced under the same cultural conditions. `Bettersnap' yielded less than 0.5 ton/ha, while `Benton' and `OSU-5402' produced about 2.5 ton/ha in once-over simulated mechanical harvest. `Bettersnap' had long vines and dense foliage, which resulted in plants with more width and less erectness than `Benton', the predominant green bean cultivar. Uneven pod setting and long pods (23.8 cm) in `Bettersnap' constitute potential problem for mechanical harvest. Canned cowpea pods of sieves 2 and 3 had darker green color, smaller seeds, and higher shear value, fiber content, and sloughing than green bean pods. Our study indicates that there is a need to develop cultivars with high yield potential and concentrated pod setting adapted to mechanical harvest with pods containing less fiber and less tendency to sloughing.
R.G. Linderman, E.A. Davis, and J.L. Marlow
Many nursery crops are susceptible to root and foliage diseases caused by numerous species of Phytophthora. Phytophthora ramorum causes sudden oak death of trees and ramorum leaf blight and shoot dieback on numerous nursery plants, including rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.), viburnum (Viburnum spp.), pieris (Pieris spp.), and camellia (Camellia spp.) in Europe, the United States, and British Columbia, Canada. We sought to evaluate relative susceptibility of a selection of ornamental nursery crops by inoculating detached leaves with several species of Phytophthora known to infect rhododendrons, and to compare the relative virulence on those species to isolates of P. ramorum. The results indicated that many plants were susceptible under these experimental conditions, while others were not. On a given host, symptoms caused by all species of Phytophthora were identical except for differences in pathogen virulence. Plant species were identical except for differences in pathogen virulence. Plant species within genera or cultivars within species varied in susceptibility to isolates of P. ramorum and other species of Phytophthora. Phytophthora ramorum, P. citricola, P. citrophthora, and P. nicotianae were the most virulent pathogens on most of the host plants inoculated. Some plants were susceptible to several species of Phytophthora, while others were susceptible only to P. ramorum. Inoculation of detached leaves of `Nova Zembla' rhododendron, lilac (Syringa vulgaris), or doublefile viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum) under controlled conditions with different species of Phytophthora or isolates of P. ramorum (both mating types) indicated significant relative differences in species or isolate virulence.
M.A. Fidanza, P.F. Colbaugh, M.C. Engelke, S.D. Davis, and K.E. Kenworthy
Fairy ring is a common and troublesome disease of turfgrasses maintained on golf course putting greens. Type-I fairy ring is especially destructive due to the development of hydrophobic conditions in the thatch and root zone, thus contributing to turfgrass injury and loss. The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the application and novel delivery method of two fungicides and a soil surfactant for curative control of type-I fairy ring in a 20-year-old creeping bentgrass [Agrostis palustris (synonym A. stolonifera)] putting green. In both years, all treatments were applied twice on a 28-day interval. In 1998, flutolanil and azoxystrobin fungicides were applied alone and in combination with Primer soil surfactant by a conventional topical spray method, and fungicides without Primer applied via high-pressure injection (HPI). Acceptable type-I fairy ring control was observed in plots treated with flutolanil plus Primer, HPI flutolanil, azoxystrobin alone, azoxystrobin plus Primer, or HPI azoxystrobin. In 1999, treatments were HPI flutolanil, HPI flutolanil plus Primer, HPI azoxystrobin, HPI water only, and aeration only. Acceptable type-I fairy ring control was observed in plots treated with HPI flutolanil plus Primer or HPI azoxystrobin. HPI of fungicides alone or in combination with a soil surfactant may be a viable option for alleviating type-I fairy ring symptoms on golf course putting greens.
Fumiomi Takeda, Rajeev Arora, Michael E. Wisniewski, Glen A. Davis, and Michele R. Warmund
A seasonal study was conducted to assess the freezing injury of `Boskoop Giant' black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) samples from Oct. 1991 through Mar. 1992. Buds were subjected to either differential thermal analysis (DTA) or one of a series of temperatures (0 to -36C). Freeze injury was then assessed either visually or with TTC. Results indicated that black currant floral buds have multiple low-temperature exotherms (LTE). Freeze injury in intact buds could not be visually quantified because of the lack of visible browning, nor assayed with TTC reduction. Excised floral primordia incubated in TTC, however, developed colored formazan following exposure to nonfreezing and sublethal freezing temperatures, but remained colorless when exposed to lethal temperatures. The percentage of floral primordia that were colored and colorless were tabulated and a modified Spearman-Karber equation was used to calculate the temperature at which 50% of floral primordia were killed (T50 The T50 temperature was correlated with the temperature at which the lowest LTE was detected (R2 = 0.62). TTC reduction assay using excised floral bud primordia was a good indicator of viability in frozen blackcurrant buds. Chemical name used: 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC).