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  • Author or Editor: E. Sánchez x
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This study was carried out on mature `Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) on EM 9 rootstock. Labeled B (99.63 Atom % 10B) was applied as boric acid. Treatments were postharvest foliar B at 375 mg·L–1, postharvest foliar B (375 mg·L–1) plus urea (2.5% wt/vol), and a soil application at the same per-tree rate as the foliar treatments (16 g boric acid/tree). Postharvest foliar B applied with or without urea was efficiently transported from the leaves into storage tissues for the next year's growth. However, soil-applied B remained mostly in the roots while very little was translocated to the above-ground portions of the tree at full bloom. When urea was added to a foliar B spray, the amount of B in the roots and flower clusters increased at full bloom. Although increasing the efficiency of foliar B applications may not be necessary, combining urea and B into a single application is recommended when growers want to apply both N and B. Shoot leaves from all treatments collected late in the season (midsummer) had similar B concentrations, even though treatments altered the amount of added B that was present in different tree tissues early in the season.

Free access

`Cornice' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) were fertilized with ammonium nitrate depleted in “N in Spring 1987 and 1988. In Aug., Oct., and Nov. 1988, midleaves on current season shoots were sampled at three positions from the periphery to the center of the canopy. Total N/cm' of leaf area remained almost constant through October, even though percent N concentration declined as specific leaf weight (SLW) increased. Furthermore, there was no substantial net change in either labeled or unlabeled N in either treatment until senescence began in October. Peripheral leaves contained higher levels of both reserve and newly acquired N than did less-exposed leaves. Despite large differences in N/cm2 for October samples, by November leaves from both high (HN) and low N (LN) trees exported similar percentages of their total N. The average N export to storage tissues irrespective of tree N status was 71%, 61%, and 52% for peripheral, medium, and interior leaves, respectively. The export of N was influenced more by the leaf position in the plant canopy than the nutritional status of the tree.

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Abstract

During the last decade, fruit growers in Chile have made dense plantings of many species of fruit trees to obtain early and high yields of quality fruit. Control of tree size has become the most important problem to many growers. Usually, heavy pruning in summer and winter is used to keep the tree within a certain space and to maintain a good yield of high quality fruit. This pruning is costly and often fails (1). There is a great need for dwarfing rootstocks in most fruit tree species. Good dwarfing commercial rootstocks are available for apples and pears, but few exist for stone fruits (6). Therefore, growth retardants are being tested to regulate the size of fruit trees (4, 6, 8-10). The growth retardant β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol) (PB) is being tested in Chile on peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots, and cherries since PB is the best known and widely tested product of this kind. PB and other growth retardants can induce effects either applied to the soil or sprayed on the foliage (2). When PB is applied to the foliage, the effect on the vegetation is faster than from soil applications, but is of short duration, and several foliar applications are needed to maintain growth retardation. Effects of PB, on stone fruits were studied through soil applications, because Chilean fruit growers wish to use the least number of sprays possible. In our trials, soil applications were made at flowering time. The formulation of PB used was a 25% flowable concentrate under the commercial name of Cultar. These trials are part of a 5-year study on gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors. Results in tables and figures were recorded after the second year when maximum effects were expressed.

Open Access

Abstract

The leaf and pod reactions of greenhouse-grown plants of reportedly tolerant lines of P. vulgaris L.: Plant Introduction (PI) 169727, PI 197687, PI 163117, PI 207262, PI 325684, PI 325691, ‘Great Northern Nebr. #1 sel. 27’; P. coccineus: PI 165421 and P. acutifolius: Tepary (Nebr. Acc. 10) to Xanthomonas phaseoli (E. F. Smith) Dowson isolates [Xp-S and Xp 816 (Nebr.), Xp-15 (Michigan), Xp-Br (Brazil)], and X.p. fuscans (Burkh.) Starr & Burk. [Xpf-UI (Uganda)], were studied. The multiple needle method was used to inoculate leaves and a dissecting needle was used to inoculate pods of these plants. A differential reaction of lines to isolates was observed for each of the reactions on leaves and pods. All P. vulgaris lines were susceptible or moderately susceptible to the new virulent Xp-Br strain. Leaves and pods of P. acutifolius were highly tolerant to all isolates while P. coccineus PI-165421 showed a differential reaction to all isolates: leaves were highly tolerant and pods highly susceptible. The internal reaction for pods was more severe than the external reaction. P. vulgaris PI 207262 showed a uniform tolerance of leaf and pod to the USA isolates, while ‘GN Nebr. #1 sel. 27’ had a tolerant leaf and susceptible pod. These results suggested differential genetic control of pod and leaf reactions. Transgressive segregation for a high level of leaf tolerance to the virulent Xp-Br strain (water soaking method of inoculation) was observed in field-grown P. vulgaris F2 plants from the crosses ‘GN Nebr. #1 sel. 27’ × PI 163117 and ‘GN Nebr. #1 sel. 27’ × ‘Guali’. Transgressive segregation was confirmed in greenhouse-grown selected F3 families. High leaf tolerance was not associated with pod tolerance. Linkage was detected among the major genes controlling late maturity and indeterminate plant habit, and the polygenes controlling common blight tolerance.

Open Access

We propagated manchurian lilac (Syringa pubescens subsp. patula ‘Miss Kim’) vegetatively from stem cuttings using overhead mist, submist, and combination propagation systems. Cuttings were collected when terminal buds were already set, after the period of tender growth that is optimal for lilac propagation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) was recorded to assess whether differences in rooting could be attributed to differences in photosynthetic activity of cuttings within each system. The propagation environment differed significantly among systems, with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) substantially greater for submist systems than for overhead mist or combination systems, and root zones warmer in submist and combination systems than in overhead mist. Pn of cuttings did not differ among systems and was initially low, but increased about when the first root primordia were visible. Rooting percentages were 90% among cuttings in the combination system, with cuttings in overhead mist and submist rooting at lower, but similar, percentages (68% and 62%, respectively). Cuttings in the combination and submist systems produced significantly more and longer roots than those in the overhead mist system, and retained nearly all of their leaves. Overall, the use of systems that provide intermittent mist to the basal end of each cutting was effective for propagating manchurian lilac. Our results demonstrate that cuttings in submist alone experience a much greater VPD than those in overhead mist, but may nonetheless root at comparable percentages and produce superior measures of root system quality. Combination systems show promise for rooting of species like manchurian lilac, because cuttings rooted at high percentages and with consistent root system quality, despite having been collected after the optimal spring period for lilac propagation.

Open Access

Abstract

A 6-parent Phaseolus vulgaris diallel cross was produced to determine the inheritance of leaf, external, and internal pod reactions to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye = Xanthomonas phaseoli E.F.S. Dows (X.p.) Nebraska isolate EK-11. The parents and F1 generations were grown in the greenhouse, whereas the F2, along with parents, were also grown in the field at 2 locations (Lincoln and Scottsbluff, Neb.). The Gardner and Eberhart (1966) model, Analysis II, was used to obtain estimates of the genetic effects for the reactions to the pathogen in the different plant parts. Coefficients of variation were high in the greenhouse experiment and low in both field experiments. The increased precision of the field experiments allowed more genetic effects to be detected as being significant. The leaves of ‘Great Northern (GN) Nebraska #1 sel. 27’ and Plant Introduction (PI) 207262 were resistant, ‘Tacarigua’ moderately susceptible, and PI 163117, ‘GN 1140’, and ‘Guali’ were highly susceptible. The pods of the first 3 entries, along with ‘GN 1140’ showed moderate resistance, but the internal reaction of the pods of ‘GN Nebr. #1 sel. 27’ showed more susceptibility than the external reaction. The reaction to X.p. was quantitatively inherited in all experiments. Additive effects were primarily involved in the genetic control of the leaf, external, and internal pod reactions to X.p. Heterosis effects for leaf reaction were detected under field conditions. External and internal pod reactions were highly correlated, but little association between leaf and pod reaction was observed. It is, therefore, necessary to select for resistance simultaneously in both plant parts since correlated responses are not expected to be present. Large positive correlations were detected between the reactions of genotypes observed in the greenhouse with those in the field experiments and between the field experiments, indicating that greenhouse tests should adequately predict field performance. A significant genotype × location interaction for leaf reaction was detected, with ‘Guali’ and ‘Tacarigua’ being more susceptible at Lincoln, under higher night temperatures, than at Scottsbluff, indicating the importance of evaluating the reaction of germplasms to this pathogen in different environments.

Open Access

Although overhead mist revolutionized the propagation industry, it does suffer from potential drawbacks that include the application of large volumes of water, potentially unsanitary conditions, irregular misting coverage, and leaching of foliar nutrients. We explored the feasibility of submist as an alternative as it might avoid these problems by applying water exclusively from below the cutting, which is inserted basally into an enclosed rooting chamber. We propagated cuttings of korean lilac (Syringa pubescens ssp. patula) and inkberry (Ilex glabra) using both overhead mist and submist to compare effectiveness of the systems. Cuttings of korean lilac were wounded and dipped basally into 8000 mg·L−1 of the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA), and those in the overhead mist systems were inserted into coarse perlite. Cuttings of inkberry were wounded and treated with 5000 mg·L−1 K-IBA, and those in the overhead mist systems were inserted into 50:50 peat:perlite (by vol). Cuttings of korean lilac in the submist systems produced more than twice as many roots as cuttings in the overhead mist systems, with roots more than 2.6 times the length. Similarly, cuttings of inkberry in the submist systems produced more than three times the root counts and root lengths as cuttings in the overhead mist systems. For korean lilac, root dry weights averaged 58 mg for cuttings in the submist system, compared with only 18 mg among cuttings receiving overhead mist. Likewise, root dry weights averaged 70 and 7 mg for cuttings of inkberry propagated by submist and overhead mist, respectively. Rooted cuttings of korean lilac transplanted well into a soilless substrate, where they more than tripled their root biomass to 218 mg (vs. 59 mg for cuttings transplanted from overhead mist). We did not evaluate transplant performance of inkberry. Our results show that submist systems might merit consideration for the propagation of woody plants by leafy stem cuttings.

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Management of pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees for low N and high Ca content in the fruit reduced the severity of postharvest fungal decay. Application of N fertilizer 3 weeks before harvest supplied N for tree reserves and for flowers the following spring without increasing fruit N. Calcium chloride sprays during the growing season increased fruit Ca content. Nitrogen and Ca management appear to be additive factors in decay reduction. Fruit density and position in the tree canopy influenced their response to N fertilization. Nitrogen: Ca ratios were lower in fruit from the east quadrant and bottom third of trees and from the distal portion of branches. High fruit density was associated with low N: Ca ratios. Nutritional manipulations appear to be compatible with other methods of postharvest decay control.

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The consumption of salad mixes has increased because of their convenience and nutritional value, resulting in significant sales increases during the past decade. Conversely, the uses of pest-control chemicals, long-distance transportation of salad mixes, and plastic packaging have raised environmental concerns among “green consumers.” Because proenvironmental products are becoming more widespread, this study delved into market segments of salad mix consumers based on their preferences for proenvironmental labels. Data for this study were collected via a 2020 web-based survey of 2100 salad mix consumers in the United States. We performed a comprehensive two-stage cluster analysis that integrated both hierarchical and partitioning methods. This analysis was based on consumers’ preferences and evaluations of production (low energy use, low fertilizer use, low greenhouse gas emissions, low water use, and pollinator-friendly) and marketing-related (biodegradable packaging, low carbon footprint, and low food miles) proenvironmental labels. Three segments were identified. We used ordered probit regression to assess the impact of consumer demographic characteristics, market preferences, and environmental perceptions on cluster membership. The deep-rooted segment, which represented 36% of the sample, highly valued all proenvironmental labels related to salad mixes and had a particular preference for labels that included low fertilizer use, pollinator-friendly production methods, and low greenhouse gas emissions. The indecisive segment comprised 40% of the sample and moderately valued all proenvironmental labels; this group mainly comprised individuals with lower income levels and those living in rural areas. The skeptic segment represented 23% of the sample and valued environmental labels less than the deep-rooted and indecisive segments did; additionally, they reported the lowest consumption of salad mixes. These findings can help retailers and policymakers communicate information about proenvironmental labels more effectively to each segment of salad mix consumers.

Open Access