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  • Author or Editor: E. J. Hogue x
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Abstract

Layering is a common commercial method of propagating plant material, particularly plants such as currants and gooseberries, which reproduce naturally in this manner. European nurserymen have used layering extensively for the propagation of ornamental schrubs and trees (5). Mound or stool layering (stooling) is a method which involves cutting a plant back to the ground during the dormant season and mounding soil or other media around the base of the newly developing shoots to encourage roots to form on them (1, 2). Stooling is the most common method of propagating clonal rootstocks (4) especially for material, such as some East Mailing, Malling-Merton and Malus robusta apple stocks that are not always easily rooted as cuttings.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

For prompt germination the seed of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) required 9 to 12 weeks of after-ripening at a temperature of 5° C. When fruit and endocarp were removed, 50–60% of the non-after-ripened seed germinated. Complete germination was obtained by removing the endocarp and the seed coats. The germination inhibition appeared to be related to non-leachable inhibitors in both of these structures, and their influence was almost entirely restricted to the radicle end of the embryo. Kinetin was very effective in breaking the dormancy linked to the seed coats but did not influence dormancy when the endocarp was present.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) on pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in the 2 to 3 leaf stage both at 100 and 400 ppm significantly increased the yield and farm value of this crop. A proportionately greater increase in value of the crop was obtained by decreasing the plant spacing from 30 × 30 cm, to 23 × 23 cm or 15 × 15 cm. The treatment yielding the highest value crop was obtained with the plant spacing of 15 × 15 cm and 400 ppm ethephon application.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Zinc-deficiency symptoms and relatively low mid-terminal leaf Zn concentrations were observed in apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh. ‘McIntosh’) grown in a minus-Zn Long Ashton solution comprised of reagent grade but unpurified chemicals. Leaf Zn concentration increased as the initial concentration of added Zn increased through the range 0 to 4 μm. Zinc was highest in seedlings grown in solutions with both high Zn and high P concentrations. High leaf P concentrations were associated with inadequate Zn nutrition.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Growth of Zn-deficient apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. McIntosh) grown in the greenhouse responded equally well to chelated or mineral Zn foliar sprays of the same Zn concentration. Absolute leaf Zn uptake, but not leaf Zn concentration, was a good measure of growth response. Foliar sprays with a concentration greater than 2.5 × 103 µg Zn/ml were required to correct Zn deficiency and adequately support growth of severely deficient seedlings for a month.

Open Access

Abstract

Five sets of basic tillage operations were carried out for 5 consecutive years on an organic soil, each followed by seeding on the flat or on raised beds to determine the cultural methods that would provide the best yield of quality fresh market carrots (Daucus carota L.) without adversely affecting the soil structure. Raised beds offered no yield advantage in a wet season and no yield reduction in a dry season. In a wet season, the bed system favored harvesting operations by reducing soil moisture and rendering the field surface firmer. Minimum tillage consisting of a fall and a spring disking did not reduce yields or increase soil bulk density as compared to spring plowing and rototilling.

Open Access

The effects of various nonfumigant planting-hole treatments on growth and yield of apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees were measured during the first 3 years after planting. Eight orchards diagnosed as having a replant problem were monitored. First-year shoot growth, the number of blossoms in the second year (inmost orchards), and first-year trunk cross-sectional area increment (TCAI) in 50% of test orchards were increased by monoammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizer+ peat, MAP+ mancozeb, or MAP + peat + a bacterial antagonist. By the end of year 3, TCAI generally was not affected by treatments, but treatments resulted in more blossoms by the third season in two of seven orchards that blossomed in the second season. Cumulative yield after 3 years increased significantly in only three orchards, with the best treatment, MAP+ peat, resulting in cost recovery in only one orchard. Inadequate K or Cu nutrition may have reduced growth in some of the orchards, which were characterized by a wide range in yields, independent of planting-hole treatment.

Free access

Abstract

Varying the level of added P to a deficient soil from 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 400 ppm made it possible to study the influence of deficiency, sub-adequate, adequate and excess amounts of P on its distribution into P fractions within tomato leaves. Plant growth response was obtained at P rates up to 100 ppm. The P fractionation data indicated that inorganic phosphate constituted about one quarter of the total plant P even when the plant is deficient in P. The plant did not accumulate phosphate until it was supplied at rates that exceeded requirements of growth and then it was accumulated mainly as inorganic phosphate while the levels of soluble organic P, RNA-P, DNA-P, phospholipid-P and phosphorprotein-P remained unchanged over the entire range of P rates.

Open Access

Direct application of fertilizers in irrigation water (fertigation) is an efficient method of supplying nutrients to fruit trees. Information is needed on the relationship between irrigation and N inputs on N availability in order to target nutrient applications to meet plant demands. Soil solution was collected from permanently installed suction lysimeters and NO3-N concentration was measured over the growing season in three experiments: 1) comparison of sprinkler irrigation + broadcast fertilizer with weekly fertigation + daily drip irrigation; 2) comparison of (NH4)2SO4 or Ca(NO3)2 as N sources under daily fertigation; and 3) comparisons of combinations of irrigation applied at either fixed rates or to meet evaporative demand and fertilizer (Ca(NO3)2) applied daily either at fixed rates or to maintain a given concentration in the fertigation solution in two soil types—loamy sand and silt loam. Trials are located in high density apple plantings of either `Gala' or `Empire' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) on M.9 rootstock. Nitrate-N concentration in the soil solution measured at 30 cm deep remained higher, over more of the growing season, for weekly fertigation + daily drip irrigation than for a single broadcast fertilizer application + sprinkler irrigation. With daily Ca(NO3)2 fertigation, soil solution NO3- N concentrations increased and decreased rapidly with the onset and end of fertigation respectively, remained relatively constant during the intervening period and were directly proportional to either the amount of N or the amount of irrigation water added. Daily fertigation with (NH4)2SO4 resulted in less control of NO3-N availability in the root-zone than with Ca(NO3)2, which may be problematic for precise timing of N nutrition. Except for the fixed irrigation rate applied to the loamy sand soil, soil solution NO3-N concentrations at 30 cm beneath the emitter were similar to average concentrations in the fertigating solution, for all methods of irrigation management in both soil types. Elevated NO3-N concentrations in soil solution below the root zone (75 cm deep) were detected in the loamy sand regardless of methods of N application and irrigation although there was some evidence of less leaching to this depth, under scheduled irrigation. In the silt loam soil, considerably lower concentrations of NO3-N were found beneath the root zone than at 30 cm deep for all of irrigation procedures and frequently there was insufficient water moving to 75 cm to provide sample. Tree growth in the loamy sand was less than in the silt loam soil; was limited by low application of irrigation water in 1992 and 1993; was unaffected by NO3-N concentration in the root zone, indicating that N inputs could be minimized by adding N to maintain concentrations of 75 μg·mL-1 or possibly less. Nitrogen inputs may also be reduced if fertilizer N and irrigation water could be retained within the root zone. For coarse-textured soils this will require precise additions of water and possibly soil amendments to improve water holding capacity.

Free access

Abstract

Mature ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were subjected for 3 years to factorial combinations of 3 rates of N fertilization applied in April and 3 degrees of orchard floor management. Tree N nutrition was affected more by vegetation management than by rate of N fertilizer applied. Significant reduction in leaf N and trunk diameter, and superior fruit skin color and firmness at commercial harvest occurred consistently when the orchard floor was sod. Increased leaf N and reduced fruit skin color and firmness at harvest were measured at the highest N (180 kg N ha-1) in only 1 year while tree growth was not increased by this rate of N. Increased fruit Ca associated with smaller fruit and increased leaf Mg and leaf K were measured under sod in 2 of 3 years. Leaf Mn was affected only by rate of N fertilization and was consistently high at 180 kg N ha-1.

Open Access