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  • Author or Editor: E. Gurbuz x
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Warm-season turfgrasses are grown throughout the warm humid, sub-humid, and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation of six warm-season turfgrass species and several of their cultivars to Mediterranean growing conditions of Turkey by evaluating turfgrass establishment rate, quality, color, and percentage of turfgrass cover. Information of this nature is lacking and would be helpful to turfgrass managers and advisers working in the region. A study was conducted over a 2-year period in two locations of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The warm-season turfgrass species studied were bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiurioides). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was included as a cool-season turfgrass species for comparison. Twenty cultivars belonging to these species were evaluated for their establishment, turfgrass color and quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and seashore paspalum established 95% or better coverage at 1095 growing degree days [GDD (5 °C base temperature)], buffalograss and centipedegrass at 1436 GDD, and ‘Zenith’ and ‘Companion’ Zoysiagrass had 90% and 84% coverage at Antalya after accumulating 2031 GDD. ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; ‘SWI-1044’, ‘SWI-1045’, ‘Princess 77’, and ‘Riviera’ bermudagrass; ‘Cody’ buffalograss; and ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality for 7 months throughout the growing season. ‘Argentine’ and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass; ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; and ‘SWI-1044’ and ‘SWI-1045’ bermudagrass extended their growing season by retaining their green color 15 days or longer than the rest of the warm-season cultivars and/or species in the fall. The warm-season species stayed fully dormant throughout January and February. Zoysiagrass and buffalograss cultivars showed early spring green-up compared to the other warm-season species studied. Results from this study support the use of warm-season turfgrass species in this Mediterranean region, especially when heat stress and water limitations exist. Tall fescue did not survive summer heat stress necessitating reseeding in fall.

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There is a dearth of information about turfgrass drought resistance and adaptation in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Turfgrass managers in this region need this information to help them make informed decisions regarding turfgrass selection and management. This research was conducted to assess the drought resistance of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) under Mediterranean conditions of Turkey. The study was conducted at two locations, Antalya and Mersin, and was repeated in 2006 and 2007 at both locations. One year after establishment, the turfs were subjected to drought stress for 90 days, which was followed by resumption of irrigation for recovery of the turf. Percentage leaf firing, turfgrass quality, and percent green shoot recovery were recorded. There were inter and intraspecies differences detected for percentage leaf firing and shoot recovery. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and buffalograss exhibited superior drought resistance as demonstrated by lower leaf firing and better shoot recovery values when compared with other species studied. Centipedegrass and zoysiagrass demonstrated a high leaf firing and very poor shoot recovery, whereas zoysiagrass and tall fescue were unable to recover from the drought stress in the sandy soil. Results showed that ‘SWI-1045’ (Contessa®) and ‘SWI-1044’ bermudagrass and ‘Cody’ buffalograss possessed superior drought resistance with acceptable turfgrass quality up to 30 days under drought stress that can be used for water-efficient turf management under the Mediterranean environment.

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